Monday, September 30, 2019

Pro-divorce Law Essay

People who say that divorce is not advisable for the Philippines forget or ignore our history. The ethno-linguistic communities of the Philippine archipelago before the Spanish conquest practiced divorce. We had a divorce law from 1917 until August 30, 1950, when the Civil Code of 1950 took effect. The latter law prohibited divorce for Filipinos, and the prohibition continues under the present Family Code. But Muslim Filipinos have always practiced divorce, which Philippine law allowed. Today, divorce continues to be available to Muslim Filipinos under the Code of Muslim Personal Law of the Philippines (Presidential Decree No. 1083), promulgated in 1977. In the 16th Congress, Gabriela, a women’s party-list group pursuing the passage of a divorce bill. Since the previous congress did not pass House Bill No. 1799, â€Å"An Act Introducing Divorce in the Philippines,† the said party-list group will again file the said bill. According to the group, â€Å"couples must have the option to avail of remedies that will pave the way for the attainment of their full human development and self-fulfillment and the protection of their human rights.† Upon the other hand, Marikina Rep. Teodoro has filed House Bill No. 37, â€Å"An Act Providing for the Protection of Marriage as an Inviolable Social Institution and the Family as the Foundation of the Nation and for other Purposes.† According to the proponent, ‘it ensures that absolute divorce remains unacceptable in the Philippines legal system, and maintains that legal separation can be availed of by spouses in troubled marriage, as provided under the Family Code, so they live independently of each other but without the right to remarry other persons.† Issue: Whether or not the Philippines is ready for a divorce law. Yes, the Philippines is ready for a divorce law. Some think that we do not need a divorce law because the Family Code, which applies to non-Muslim Filipinos, already provides for the termination of marriages through â€Å"annulment.† This argument misleads. Annulment is a legal term that has a specific meaning. The remedy of annulment is based on specified grounds that occurred at the time of the celebration of the marriage, such as lack of parental consent and vitiated consent (as when a person married another at gunpoint). The remedy of annulment expires, and the defect may actually be cured by ratification through free and voluntary cohabitation. When people speak of â€Å"annulment† as a means of terminating a marriage, they actually  refer to the remedy under Article 36 of the Family Code. Article 36 declares that a marriage is void from the beginning when one or both spouses are psychologically incapacitated to perform the essential marital obligations. Under Article 36, a court does not terminate a marriage but only declares it void. One must prove psychological incapacity by presenting evidence on three essential elements of the condition: that it already existed before the marriage; that it is grave or serious; and that it is incurable. To do this, one usually needs the help of a psychiatrist or psychologist to testify as an expert witness. But what if the marriage worked in the first ten years, but later the parties drifted apart for some reason or another? What if the other spouse was violent, unfaithful, indolent, or an alcoholic or a drug addict? What if one spouse abandoned the family? These may not be used for â€Å"annulment,† or for a marriage to be declared void under Article 36, unless it can be proved that these are manifestations of psychological incapacity that predated the marriage. A divorce law will provide a remedy that Article 36 does not. Divorce does not concern itself with validity or invalidity of a marriage. It terminates a marriage based on a ground that occurred during the marriage, which makes the marital relationship no longer tenable, regardless of the spouse’s psychological constitution. A divorce law will provide a straightforward remedy to a marital failure. It will benefit Filipinos wherever they are. A PETITION FOR DIVORCE MAY BE FILED ON ANY OF THE FOLLOWING GROUNDS: (1) THE PETITIONER HAS BEEN SEPARATED DE FACTO FROM HIS OR HER SPOUSE FOR AT LEAST FIVE YEARS AT THE TIME OF THE FILING OF THE PETITION AND RECONCILIATION IS HIGHLY IMPROBABLE; (2) THE PETITIONER HAS BEEN LEGALLY SEPARATED FROM HIS OR HER SPOUSE FOR AT LEAST TWO YEARS AT THE TIME OF THE FILING OF THE PETITION AND RECONCILIATION IS HIGHLY IMPROBABLE; (3) WHEN ANY OF THE GROUNDS FOR LEGAL SEPARATION UNDER PARAGRAPH (A) OF THIS ARTICLE HAS CAUSED THE IRREPARABLE BREAKDOWN OF THE MARRIAGE; (4) WHEN ONE OR BOTH SPOUSES ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY INCAPACITATED TO COMPLY WITH THE ESSENTIAL MARITAL OBLIGATIONS; (5) WHEN THE SPOUSES SUFFER FROM IRRECONCILABLE DIFFERENCES THAT HAVE CAUSED THE IRREPARABLE BREAKDOWN OF THE MARRIAGE.† Even when couples start out well in their marriage, political, economical and social realities take their toll on their relationship. Some are not prepared to handle the intricacies of the married life. For a large number of women, the inequalities and violence in marriage negate its ideals as the embodiment of love, care and safety and erode the bases upon which a marriage is founded. The marital relations facilitate the commission of violence and perpetuate their oppression. Official figures in 2009 showed that nineteen women were victims of marital violence everyday. Among the different forms of violence and abuse against women committed in 2009, wife battery ranked highest at 6,783 or 72% according to the Philippine National Police (PNP). The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) likewise recorded marital violence as highest among different forms of violence against owmen at 1,933. Previous reports of the PNP about three of ten perpetrators of violence against women were husbands of the victims. Husbands accounted for 28 percent of the violence against women crimes. Given these realities, couples must have the option to avail of remedies that will pave the way for the attainment of their full human development and self-fulfillment and the protection of their human rights. Existing laws are not enough to guarantee and protect these rights. To quote the Women’s Legal Bureau, Inc., a legal resource NGO for women: â€Å"The present laws relating to separation of couples and termination of marriage are inadequate to respond to the myriad causes of failed marriages. Particularly, the remedies of declaration of nullity and annulment do not cover the problems that occur during the existence of marriage. Legal separation, on the other hand, while covering problems during marriage, does not put an end to marriage.† â€Å"Though both divorce and a declaration of nullity of a marriage allow the spouses to remarry, the two remedies differ in concept and basis. A declaration of nullity presupposes that the marriage is valid from the beginning and the court declares its non-existence†¦ Beyond [the] grounds specified [in the law], declaration of nullity is not possible.† â€Å"In annulment, the marriage of the parties is declared defective from the beginning, albeit it is considered valid until annulled. The defect can be used to nullify the marriage within a specified period but the same may be ignored and the marriage becomes perfectly valid after the lapse of that period, or the defect may be cured through some act. The defect relates to the time of the celebration of the marriage and has nothing to do with circumstances occurring after the marriage is celebrated. In annulment, the marriage is legally cancelled, and the man and woman are restored to their single status.† â€Å"Since August 3, 1988, couples have been given a way out of failed marriages through Article 36 of the Family Code†¦ The remedy provides under Article 36 is declaration of nullity of the marriage. The article voids a marriage where one party is â€Å"psychologically incapacitated† to comply with the essentials of marital obligations. Consistent with the concept of void marriages (where the remedy is declaration of nullity), the law requires that the incapacity must have existed at the time of the celebration of the marriage†¦ In practice, Article 36 has become a form of divorce, as valid marriages are declared void every day in the guise of â€Å"psychological incapacity.† The innumerable Article 36 cases brought to trial courts is an indication of the elasticity of Article 36 to accommodate the needs of many couples desiring to terminate their marriages. It is proof that divorce is needed in the Philippines. Article 36 provides a remedy only for spouses who can prove â€Å"psychological incapacity†. The concept certainly cannot accommodate all cases where divorce would be necessary. What we need is a divorce law that defines clearly and unequivocally the grounds and terms for terminating a marriage. That law will put an end to the creative efforts played daily in courtrooms across the country to accommodate a wide range of  cases in order to prove â€Å"psychological incapacity.† (Women’s Legal Bureau, Inc., The Relevance of Divorce in the Philippines, 1998) Divorce does not concern itself with validity or invalidity of a marriage. It terminates a marriage based on a ground that occurred during the marriage, which makes the marital relationship no longer tenable, regardless of the spouse’s psychological constitution. A divorce law will provide a straightforward remedy to a marital failure. It will benefit Filipinos wherever they are. â€Å"The law should only give people a choice, to be exercised according to their own personal beliefs.†- Luzviminda Ilagan The Catholic Church need not worry. The institutions of marriage and the family have survived to this day, as they will survive a Philippine divorce law. We are a secular state, where no religious group has the right to define law or policy for the entire population. There is not one but a plurality of beliefs in Philippine society. The law should only give people a choice, to be exercised according to their own personal beliefs. Therefore, to be set free from an unhappy marriage is to allow citizens of any country to form their own lives. Freedom is something we all want. To allow a country to set the law for such freedoms is nothing more than an act which is incomprehensible. There are record amounts of unhappy marriages in the Philippines. Every day, Filipinos get married, bear children, separate and get into other relationships, regardless of what the law says. The lack of a divorce law for non-Muslim Filipinos complicates further the marital and family problems of many Filipinos. Our government has clearly failed to respond to their needs. If the country wants to move forward, it has to confront the realities of marital and family life of Filipinos in the Philippines and abroad. It has to pass a divorce law now.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway Essay

Hemingway’s story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† appears on the surface as a brief and unremarkable vignette written almost all in dialogue, with minimal action and an unclear final resolution, the story is actually a â€Å"watershed† of narrative invention and a radical shift from Hemingway’s usual perspective, as it is most often defined by readers and critics. As Alan Cheuse remarks in his essay â€Å"†Reflections on Dialogue: â€Å"How D’yuh Get t’Eighteent’ Avenoo and Sixty-Sevent’ Street? â€Å"American writers, â€Å"possess an acute ability to create skeins of seemingly natural language that make up a world out of human speech† (Cheuse) and also represent a special gift for create entire worlds through dialogue, as is readily manifest in â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants. † Hemingway’s style of natural language is an elementary base of his technique in â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants. † Another narrative strategy is that he strips away the expository writing or the direct information to the reader which would help the reader to place the action of the story in context. Rather than weigh down the narrative, Hemingway leaves his story lean and bare, primarily relying on conflict-charged dialogue between the story’s two main characters. By refusing to included background information or even internal monologue on behalf of the two characters, Hemingway â€Å"leaves virtually everything, even what is at issue between the girl and the American, for the reader to â€Å"figure† out,† and this strategy includes the story’s final resolution: whether or not the girl in story opts to have the couple’s child or whether she chooses as is the man’s desire, to have an abortion. The lack of final resolution is notable enough that even critics are left to their own devices to decide what happens to finish the story and conclude the conflict between the two characters. As one scholar commented, â€Å"the ending has seemed stubbornly indeterminate† (Renner); however, the same critic, Renner, has forwarded a compelling theory as to how the resolution of â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† can be deduced from a careful study of its narrative form, imagery, and symbolism, The conflict in the title: the burden of something unwanted — a â€Å"white elephant† — merged with the symbol of hills suggesting rich fertility extends throughout the story, forms its basic theme, and functions as an axis on which the changing attitudes and evolving conflict between the characters spins. In order to integrate the various levels of narrative along Renner’s theoretical lines in order to find the story’s true resolution, the piece must be examined from a formal perspective with due note given to its imagery and symbolism a well as the nuances contained in the story’s plentiful dialogue, (Renner) which leaves the reader able to deduce that the man in the story has indeed been sensitive to the woman’s situation. According to Renner, the story takes place in four distinct â€Å"movements† and these movements are the key components to understanding the resolution of the story. Renner’s distinction of the four movements follows an ascending structure of character development and character conflict: â€Å"In the first movement we are shown the stereotypical passive female, not even knowing her own mind, accustomed to following a masterful male for her direction in life,† the next movement illustrates the girl’s character development toward â€Å"a dramatic realization of her own mind-her own welfare, dreams, and values;† by the third movement, the girl begins to assert herself, and by the fourth and final movement, â€Å"we see the result of her development toward self-realization† which Renner insists reveals, also, the actual conclusion of the story, (Renner). To extrapolate a probable resolution for the conflict in â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† it becomes necessary to examine the conflict which lies under the overt abortion-question of the story. If the story is, indeed, about the â€Å"capitulation† of the girl, then her refusal to capitulate is evident form the action of the story. When the girl says â€Å"Would you please, please, please, please, please, please, please stop talking,†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ her victory is indicated. The abortion will not be performed and the realization of her independence form the man has been attained. In this way, Hemingway’s story reveals a feminine point of view and a feminine dominance which is usually not associated with his fiction (Renner). Works Cited Cheuse, Alan. â€Å"Reflections on Dialogue: â€Å"How D’yuh Get t’Eighteent’ Avenoo and Sixty-Sevent’ Street? â€Å". † The Antioch Review Spring 2005: 222+. Meyers, Jeffrey, ed. Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997. Renner, Stanley. â€Å"Moving to the Girl’s Side of â€Å"Hills like White Elephants. â€Å". † The Hemingway Review 15. 1 (1995): 27+.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Critical Review of the Use of Dogs in the US Army During the WWII Essay

A Critical Review of the Use of Dogs in the US Army During the WWII - Essay Example In the past, the main of role of trained dogs was that that of sentries or patrols. But in modern warfare, dogs had been used the most tactfully. Though in post modern warfare, dogs’ role has mostly been replaced by modern technology, they played a crucial role in the US Army during the Second World War (Blumenstock pars. 2). After the attack on Pearl Harbor Navy Base in December 7, 1941, the US Army led a campaign to inspire the pet-owners to donate their dogs to the army-training camps. The US Army named this campaign as â€Å"Dogs for Defense†. In order to inspire the owner, they further claimed that the dogs would be trained to be accustomed into civil life after the war. Indeed, it was the beginning of the dog-squad in the US military. Subsequently, martial dog training programs were adopted and, in the meantime, a number of dog-training centers were established to facilitate the programs around the country (MWD History, pars. 2). Some of the dog-training centers w ere Gulfport, Fort Carson, Rimini, San Carlos, Fort Washington, Fort Riley, Fort Belvoir, Fort Robinson, Nebraska Camp, Beltsville, etc. During the Second World War, the US Army used dog to perform a number of risky as well as routine jobs. According to the types of breed and performance, the dogs were to be sled dogs, sentry, scouts, mine-detecting dogs, wire-layer, pack-pullers, and messenger dogs. The military training of a dog used to take 8-12 week to be fully trained. By late 1944, the Army selected about seven breeds of dogs to receive the highest performances in war-fields. Among these breeds were German Shepherd, Doberman Pinscher, Collie, Belgian Sheep dog, Eskimo, Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, etc. During the Second World War, the German Shepherd was the most preferred choice in the army because of its courage, strong sense of responsibility, keen nose, strength, adaptability and trainability. Doberman Pinscher was second to German Shepherd in terms of strength, nervo us power, speed, sensing power, and tractability. Collie and Belgian Sheep dogs were mainly used as messengers for their loyalty, alertness, endurance and agility. Muscular and sturdy breeds were generally used for pack-pull and wire-laying jobs. Alaskan Malamute, Eskimo and Siberian Husky belonged to this group. Among these three breeds, Siberian Husky was the most desired type because of their speed and endurance. During the war, the US dog-squad’s performance was surprising (Blumenstock pars. 2-4). Due to their high sensibility, loyalty and alertness, the military dogs were the preferred options for the soldiers in many war fields. There were many fields where dogs were more skillful performers than the soldiers. During the WWII, the war-theater-wise performance of the US military dogs was great. The dogs showed great performances mainly in two theaters: the pacific theater and the European theater. In 1944, under the command of William W. Putney, the â€Å"3rd Marine War Dog Platoon† played a crucial role in the liberation of Guam from the Japanese occupation. According to the MWD, approved and led by the US Congress, â€Å"Twenty-five of Lieutenant Putney's war dogs gave their lives in the liberation of Guam and were buried there in a War Dog Cemetery with name markers† (MWD History, pars. 2). In the war-field of Guam, the Doberman Pincers breed showed a great performance in guarding and scouting along the frontline of the war. Evading the enemies’ eye, they successfully worked as messengers between the US camps. Several of the success stories are as following: In February 17, 1945, a war-dog called Bruce saved two wounded soldiers from the attack of three Japanese infantrymen. During the nocturnal

Friday, September 27, 2019

Literary Analysis Of White Teeth By Zadie Smith Essay

Literary Analysis Of White Teeth By Zadie Smith - Essay Example She is currently a Fellow at Harvard University in the US. Our children will be born of our actions. Our accidents will become their destinies. Oh, the actions will remain. It is a simple matter of what you will do when the chips are down, my friend. When the fat lady is singing. When the walls are falling in, and the sky is dark, and the ground is rumbling. In that moment our actions will define us. And it makes no difference whether you are being watched by Allah, Jesus, Buddha, or whether you are not. On cold days a man can see his breath, on a hot day he can't. On both occasions, the man breathes. -Zadie Smith, White Teeth If World War II and the knowledge of oppression it represents are absent from all too many postcolonial studies, fifty-five years after its ending, the event and its lingering effects have found a critical position in the remarkable novel White Teeth, by Zadie Smith, Britain's most celebrated postcolonial prodigy. In White Teeth, the last days of that war mark the beginning of an escape from the nightmare of belonging to someone else and chart a journey to somewhere else. White Teeth proclaims a declaration of independence not only from the haunting and constraining memory of the war's catastrophes and racist oppression, but from the very idea of belonging. After centuries of colonial oppression and decades of postcolonial depression and anger, White Teeth imagines the grand finale of Empire as the construction of a multicultural, multiclass British bazaar. Acknowledging its colonial history and debt to postcolonial studies, the novel creates a set of unanticipated mutating connectio ns among historical and imagined events and identities interwoven among first-, second-, and third-generation postcolonial citizens of Britain. (Mike Storry, Peter Childs 53) The end of World War II meets the creation of a new Britain when a younger generation seizes the monocultural ground of Englishness on which their racialized conditions originated. As this younger generation remaps the future of their interrelated history, the narrative and political effects of their takeover represent a response not only to postcolonial critics, but to British women writing the end of Empire. Born in 1975, of a Jamaican mother and English father, in the epicenter of "British racism of the 1970s and 1980s, "Zadie Smith writes White Teeth as a rebellion against her confinement in the role of marginalized victim in an ongoing history of oppression. Neither she nor her characters will accept their places as objects of an interminable and global racist plot. (Nasta 11) Instead, she insists that "her own education at a comprehensive school and then at Cambridge shows that"life changes, my family is a picture of change"). The novel's hyperkinetic romp across interracial, multiethnic London veers from the marriage of working-class Englishman Archie Jones to biracial Jamaican Clara, from his friendship with his Bengali Muslim army mate, Samad Iqbal, to their children's entanglements with the Jewish Chalfen family. As their children hip-hop unimpeded through London's jumble of social and cultural identities, White Teeth understands, toys with, and then refuses inclusion in the "official racism of Britain in the 1970s". These characters and the whole of White Teeth will not play into the hands of Enoch Powell's racist rhetoric-"the triumph of barbarism over civilization". Powell's rallying cry against the postwar waves of postcolonial immigration reverses that slogan used by colonial conquerors and also by the Allies in their war against Nazi conquest-th e triumph of civilization over barbarism. But Powell's slogan also exposes what all

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 8

Film - Essay Example However, even though the films are of same genre and have similar background themes, the setting and the characters are distinct, and have unique personalities. The films ‘It Happened One Night’ (1934) and ‘Maid in Manhattan’ (2002) have similar background themes where a wealthy person falls in love with a ‘commoner.’ The love interest gets the wealthy characters (Ellie and Chris) distracted from the goals they had set to achieve. For example, in the movie ‘It Happened One Night,’ the female character Ellie runs away from her wealthy father to get married to a man of her choice. However, when she meets Peter and gets to know him during their travel to New York, she falls in love with him and gets distracted from the goal for which she had run away from her father. Similarly, in the film ‘Maid in Manhattan,’ Christopher Marshall who is a senatorial candidate, gets distracted from his goal of focusing on his campaign when he falls in love with a maid working in a classy hotel in which he stays. However, the contrast in the theme is that when Ellie confesses her love towards Pete r, he agrees that he is also in love with her. However, the character of Marissa, who is a maid, tries to avoid Christopher when she realizes that he is romantically interested in her. The other difference in the themes of the films is the truth about the characters who are ‘commoners’. In the movie ‘It Happened One Night,’ Peter discloses his real self to Ellie right from the beginning, and that too, with certain flamboyance and charm. On the other hand, Chris misunderstands Marissa as a socialite guest at the hotel, and considers her as a wealthy woman and not a ‘commoner’. Hence, when Chris falls in love with Marissa, he is not aware about her true identity of a maid. In this way, even though basic themes of the films are similar, the shades of the characters are different. The basis of the romantic comedies

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Lack of Motivation & Coaching in the Workplace Research Proposal

Lack of Motivation & Coaching in the Workplace - Research Proposal Example Lack of motivation and coaching at a work place can be deteriorating for an organization’s human resource health. The capital may not be motivated to work hard enough, resulting in a lower level of performance that may cost the organization its market position in a competitive environment today (John, 2005). Without coaching, a person may not be able to take the best decisions, which may come to him with experience or when an experienced person advices them. Therefore, coaching acts as a make shift tool for the knowledge management of an organization and is equally important. Research has shown that highly motivated individuals in an organization produce work efficiently, in lesser time and better quality when compared to their counterparts in the same or different organizations. Therefore, research on the implications of the lack of motivation and coaching in the workplace is very important for organizations to understand its importance (Robert, 2007). It is highly important that the employees are motivated in the right context and put their best effort towards the organization; the goals of the organization as well as the employees should be matched in such a manner that they work in unison. Meeting the coaching needs of an employee would help them to make better decisions regarding the day to day operations as well as their career, further motivating them to work harder. The negative impact that may arise due to lack of motivation and coaching in the work place are theoretically tremendous. Organizations may face a high employee turnover rate if the organizations don’t take steps to motivate their employees enough. The question arises that what kind of initiatives should be taken to motivate the employees at the workplace (John, 2001). Also, the impact of having no coaching initiatives in an organization may be tremendous; therefore, is coaching and motivation necessary for the employees to produce their

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Case study 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Case study 2 - Assignment Example During the midmorning snack, Jim will be offered one cup of plain yogurt, Mona will take one half cup of cooked pastas while Kora will be offered  ¼ cup of cottage cheese. During the mid afternoon snack Jim will take 1  ½ ounces of cheddar cheese, Mona will take 1  ½ cup of cooked rice, while Kora will have 1 egg (Marotz, 2011). Mona who is allergic to wheat is likely to have a shortage of carbohydrates and fiber; he will lack nutrients such as calcium, iron, riboflavin, and thiamin. Jim who does do take milk will lack enough proteins and nutrients such as calcium, while Kara will have a deficiency of vitamins especially vitamin B. Peanuts is also a good source of proteins. In order to meet their nutritional needs they are supposed to be given food such as puddings, cheese, yogurt for Jim, pastas, rice for Mola, and legumes, meat, beans or eggs for Kola. As a teacher, one should also ensure that we have the approval of the child’s physician before giving any treatment to any child with allergy symptoms. We should ensure that children do not use their allergies as a way of getting attention or seeking special privileges (Marotz,

Monday, September 23, 2019

Consonants in old and middle english Research Paper

Consonants in old and middle english - Research Paper Example The second part of the paper has discussed the Middle English (1066-1500 CE). A table of consonants has been used to illustrate what consonants were like during the period. The inventory sounds of consonants of Chaucerian Middle English have been discussed in this section. Another feature highlighted in the section is the characteristics of Middle English. The paper has been concluded by justifying how the English language has developed after undergoing refine standardization for several periods. A consonant is a speech sound that is coherent to partial closure or complete closure of a vocal tract. Examples of consonants are t, p, k, h and s among others. Some consonants are pronounced at the front of the tongue, some at the back of the lip, some in the throat, some at the back of the tomgue and some are pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel. English is a language from West German, which originates from Anglo-Frisian Dialects. The language was brought to Britain by invaders and settlers from German (Fennell, 2001). These people settled in the present Netherlands and North West Germany. English is unique from other European languages of the same era in that it uses vocabularies. English is regarded as a borrowing language because most of its modern vocabulary originated from Anglo-Norman languages (Fennell, 2001). Middle English varied from old English because of the two invasions of the middle ages. The North Germanic language natives were responsible for the first invasion. These people conquered and colonized some parts of the Britain during 8th and 9th centuries A.D. The second invasion was caused by the Normans of the 11th Century, who were natives of old Norman. This language developed after sometime to English form and adopted the name Anglo-Norman. The new English vocabularies, which were used during the beginning of the Middle English times, influenced most organizations to a great extent. Some of the influenced organizations include;

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The U.S. Foreign Policy during the Cold War Essay Example for Free

The U.S. Foreign Policy during the Cold War Essay It is true that foreign strategy of the United States during the Cold War (1947-1989) is called containment. This policy can be described as the efforts to stop global political movement toward communist and socialist ideology (the ideology of the Soviet Union) and promote political popularity of democratic ideas dominating in Europe and the United States. That is how it was supposed to create a certain political isolation of the Soviet Union, which would sooner or later bring to a number of various problems, such as political decadence, economic stagnation and so on. In other words, containment was a policy directed on gradual weakening and declining the power of the Soviet Union by preventing the expansion of communist beliefs around the world and defending the ideas of democracy and opened economy. The strategy of containment was created and proposed by George Frost Kennan, an American politician and diplomat, known as â€Å"the father of containment†, who worked in 1944-1946 as a head of American mission to the Soviet Union and was an excellent specialist in understanding the relations between Washington and Moscow. Having sent his historical â€Å"long telegram† Kennan warned the administration of Truman about possible dangers of messing with Soviet political powers. Besides, later on he publicized his ideas about the necessity to follow the policy of containment in Foreign Affairs magazine, where he stated: â€Å"†¦the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union †¦ must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies† and ideology taught them [Soviets] that it was their duty eventually to overthrow the political forces beyond their borders. (U. S. Department of State, n. d. ). Kennan also argued that Soviet Russia was an antagonistic and closed-minded society, driven by a great obsession to dominate combined with a huge political insecurity. That is why, he thought, only a determined and resolute reaction of the United States would be the best solution to frustrate the ambitions of Soviet authorities and eventually bring the power of American ideological ally to a standstill. These ideas of Kennan received a lot of warm support in American administrative circles and became the main postulates of famous Marshall Plan on reformation. Therefore, Kennan’s call for containment had a tremendous impact on American policy-makers and â€Å"†¦inspired the hardheaded power politics that shaped the Cold War† (Holbrook, 2005). The controversy of this policy arose around the issue of the limits of containment, because it was crucial not to lose the control of the situation and peripheral interests of the U. S. That is why in 1950 a detailed plan, stipulating the stages and activities of the United States in the framework of the Cold War was issued by National Security Council as a document called NSC-68. Anyway, the strategy of containment was a great success in the long run, and it became one of the most far-seeing and prudential political moves in modern history, because any aggression from one of the sides in this â€Å"peaceful competition† called the Cold War would spark a serious conflict and possibly bring to global bloody outcomes. George F. Kennan himself in his interview to CNN analysts commented on the effectiveness of the containment policy as the following: â€Å"†¦the alternative was to have a great military conflagration and I could see no good coming out of this† (CNN, n. d. ) Certainly, not every American politician was supporting the policy of containment and there were some, who insisted on more determined activities of the U. S. directed against communist ideology expansion. In particular, John Foster Dulles, the 52nd Secretary of the State, was promoting the ideas of liberation of Western European countries. Nevertheless, the strategy of containment which â€Å".. helped to define the issues and values dividing America and Russia†, was a well-considered political step, which eventually contributed to collapse of communist ideology in Western Europe (UXL Encyclopedia, 2005). References Cornwell, R. (2005, March 19) Obituary: George Kennan. The Independent. 58 (893), 6. George F. Kennan. (2005). UXL Encyclopedia of World Biography. Ed. 1. Farmington Hills, MI: UXL (Gale). George F. Kennan, U. S. Embassy, Moscow. (n. d. ). CNN. A CNN Perspectives Series. Retrieved December 19, 2007, from http://www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/cold. war/episodes/01/interviews/kennan/. Holbrooke, R. (2005, March 21). The Paradox of George F. Kennan. The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved December 19, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/articles/A52533-2005Mar20. html. Kennan and Containment. (n. d. ). U. S. Department of State. Retrieved December 19, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www. state. gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601. htm.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War Essay Example for Free

Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War Essay Fearon’s study particularly pertains to the evaluation on which particular countries are actually prone to undergoing situations such as civil wars. In this article, he along with his co-researchers found out certain elements that contribute to the increase of threat towards the possibility of a country undergoing a civil outburst. According to the said researchers, the most important issues that needs consideration on this part of the situation is the emergence of countries that are involved in primary commodity export appointments in the field of international trade. Apparently, it is in this article that poverty has been noted to be a reactive result of several globalization approaches which also brings about the possibility of social chaos giving way to civil war. The bridge that was supposed to keep nations together through globalization is now serving as the strongest reason of gap between people around the world and even within countries. The widening gap is also producing serious consequences for the richer nations. This is because of their growing dependence on the raw materials of the nations of the â€Å"Third World. † But now these nations have changed their attitudes about how their resources will be used, and paid for. An example of this was the action taken by the oil-producing underdeveloped nations, sending shock waves throughout the industrial lands. For many decades, the poorer oil-producing nations had to sell their oil at a relatively cheap price. Recently, these nations banded together and agreed to quadruple their prices. The poor nations have laid down a clear challenge to the rich nations. They will no longer passively accept what the industrial nations have assumed for more than two centuries. That assumption was that there would always be cheap raw materials available from the poor nations. No longer is this the case. However, the dilemma of the poor nations is that most of them are not blessed with abundant raw materials. Most of them lack abundant mineral and oil resources. They are largely agricultural lands, and in bad years, they have nothing to fall back on to sell to other nations. Therefore, they will not have the money to buy the food and other things they need to help them in bad years. That is just what is happening now to various countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The main idea of studying the way people live in the society is to see how far they have fared in making their way to progress. However, contrary to the aimed unified progress, development is usually shifted only to the â€Å"haves†. Yes, the world may be seemingly unfair, equality may even seem too impossible to be achieved, but through a unified effort, having an equal community could still be worked upon by the entire human civilization; something that is most needed to avoid possible outburst of civil war. Bibliography Fearon, James. Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 4, 483-507 (2005).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Globalization Economy Nicaraguan

Globalization Economy Nicaraguan Globalization has had a great impact in the modern world, and has even come to affect the economy of several Latin American countries. However, has globalization affected the Nicaraguan Economical panorama? In order to answer this question, it is important to take Nicaraguas history into account, a history that has been smeared with endless corruption. Another idea that must be kept in mind is the term â€Å"globalization† has numerous amounts of definitions, so in order to identify the answer; a proper definition must be structured. Within the context of globalization, it is trivial to identify if the key treaties like the ALBA and the CAFTA have had any significant effect on the Nicaraguan economy. Through a careful evaluation, it will be noticed that Globalization has not had an impact in the Nicaraguan Economy yet; however the roots of globalization can already be traced to the economy. One of the limitations found in this research paper was the gathering of different sources from the rural sectors of the country, as the rural perspective of this essay is of much importance to define if globalization has affected Nicaragua or not. Introduction Globalization has started to influence the Nicaraguan economic scheme from the beginning of the 21st century. The Nicaraguan population should ask themselves if globalization would aid the economic stance they are in. Another question that must be asked is if the new trade agreements will benefit or harm the private sector of the rural Nicaraguan farmers. The last question to be answer is, â€Å"Globalization from what side?† as the American Hemisphere seems to be structured with a strong Capitalist giant on the top, The United States of America, and numerous amounts of underdeveloped Socialist countries, which can be said to be most of South America, consisting of Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Bolivia, Uruguay all have socio-democratic governments, that exercise populist tendencies. Another point that should be kept in mind is the choice between the ALBA and the CAFTA, as the socio-democratic alignment that Nicaragua currently has should be kept in mind. Both treaties should be considered in the â€Å"global† sense as there are currently four enlisted countries in the ALBA agreement, which are Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua, Bolivia and Ecuador; while the CAFTA is conformed of The United States, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Dominican Republic and Costa Rica. The main concern in regards to globalization may not even be of an economic impact, but rather on of an ideological degree. The Nicaraguan populations view on globalization is of a loss of national pride, as if the United States would take over the countrys economy; which to some extent is true. The ideological conflict, however, stands on whether to be a nationalist, a socialist or a capitalist. Nicaraguas preferences must be examined in order to determine if globalization will have an effect in the Nicaraguan economy. Nicaragua has a long history of corruption that can be traced back to the 1930s with the Somoza dynasty, and can then be followed along the list of Somoza family members onto the Sandinista Mandate and then into the 21st century with the newly elected â€Å"liberal parties†. It is important to recognize Nicaraguas background in order to determine if Globalization will benefit or harm the economy. In order to truly define the â€Å"sort† of globalization that suits Nicaragua best, a definitely structured definition must be established, as â€Å"globalization† is wide in the range of it meaning. Definition of Globalization The definition of globalization can be branched into three main concepts. The first of the concepts can be referred to as the â€Å"broad† point of view, in which globalization is interpreted without inclinations towards the foreign or domestic perspectives. In this notion, we call â€Å"globalization† when a company or multi-national industry invests capital in a usually underdeveloped economy such as Nicaragua. The other two perspectives stray apart when the question of â€Å"why would the companies invest in underdeveloped countries?† is asked. The â€Å"Imperialist† perspective bases itself on the moral principal of stimulating under developed countrys economies. In this lay out, a corporation such as Nike sets out a factory in the under developed country in order to provide jobs for the grand unemployed population. By providing such work, the corporation is thus permitted to pay low fees to its new employees. If a company does not wish to set up a factory in a new location, they can still enter the local markets through Commerce treaties. In Nicaragua there are two possible treaties, the CAFTA (Central America Free Trade Agreement) and the ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana), the CAFTA being the most suitable, as it permits United States owned companies to compete in local markets. Taking the Imperialist point of view, the local population is given new choices in the market from which to buy from, choices that are sometimes less expensive and thus more economically feasible for a greater part of the population. The â€Å"Anti-imperialist† perspective, otherwise known as the down side to globalization, regards globalization as â€Å"Economic terrorism†. This point of view focuses on the injustices that these corporations bring upon the under developed countries. The first injustice is the claim that these companies pay a misery of a fee to the employees thus only keeping them busy instead of â€Å"feeding them†, reason for why this low pay condition is usually referred to as a â€Å"Sweat-Shops†. The most impacting injustice would be the fact that these corporations are allowed to compete in local markets. The reason for this claim is that the foreign companies offer products of a cheaper nature, and therefore encourage the local merchants to buy foreign products instead of local ones. Once the local products are not consumed, the national domestic companies thus run out of business placing people out of work. The only form of globalization encouraged in Nicaragua, is one through the ALBA agreement, as the conditions in this treaty are of Self-Growth concepts between allied Latin American countries Venezuela, Bolivia, and Nicaragua. Nicaraguas Economic Background during the Somoza era and the Sandinistas. In the 1936, the Nicaraguan population elected Anastasio Somoza Garcia to power. At this moment, the Nicaraguan economy is on the rise. The main exports were cattle and coffee, settling Nicaragua as one of the richest countries of Central America in the first half of the 20th century. Somoza Garcia, however set Nicaraguas faith by providing the United States with raw materials during World War Two for the Allied war effort. This close association with the United States set the Nicaraguas economical and political dependence to the will of the United States. During his presidency; however, he did not increase the Nicaraguan Economy to a significant degree, instead hes main dedication was of a personal extent. Somoza Garcias tactics consisted of diverting government funds to his own accounts, and purchasing government lands at ridiculously low prices. While the Nicaraguan economy remained at a flat constant, Somoza Garcias personal Bank accounts were at an all time raise. During the wartime, he attained numerous facilities to which income was due, facilities such as a cement factory, the national railroad, a cement factory, most textile plants, several electric power companies, the national airlines, and an extensive control over the banks. His personal income, after World War Two, was estimated to have been of 60 million dollars. After Somoza Garcias death in 1956, his younger son Anastasio Somoza Debayle took control of the presidency and succeeds his father in power. A few years later, after a rigged election, Luis Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somozas older son, took control of the Nicaraguan presidency. During Luis Somozas presidency, the Nicaraguan economy was hit with a drop in Coffee production, as now the competitions for their main product had been expanded onto other locations and were purchased at even lower prices, causing Nicaragua to drop prices as well. It wasnt the coffee drop, however, that caused many grievances to the Nicaraguan Economy, it was the 1972 Earthquake that caused $15 million in damages. Richard Nixon, however, aided the Nicaraguan government with a donation of $50 million. The Nicaraguan Treasury only reported $17 million of that donation, while the other $33 million was believed to be in Luis Somozas personal bank accounts abroad. It was until 1980 that the Somoza dynasty was replaced by another sort of mandate, a leftist government. In 1980, the United States lifted its â€Å"protective shield† over the Somoza family and allowed internal social conflicts to rise out of control. Luis Somoza was then pressured by the United States to leave Nicaragua with the threat of freezing bank accounts that were located in United States banks. The country was therefore left in the hands of the Revolutionary party F.S.L.N (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional, which is translated to â€Å"Sandinista Front, for National Liberation†), which was commanded by Daniel Ortega. At the moment the F.S.L.N gained presidential authorities, the economic situation had an incredible deficit as major loans were issued from the World Bank. The F.S.L.N, or the Sandinista party for short, did not play a significant role for the Nicaraguan Economy, as their main intentions remained to â€Å"restore the social injustice†. Governmental and private lands were both confiscated and given to the Nicaraguan population as a sort of Land Reform. Not all the land was given to â€Å"the people†, most of it was kept by the high ranking officers such as Daniel Ortega, his brother Humberto Ortega, his right-hand man Tomas Borge and several other Sandinista generals. The countrys economic status dropped from being one of the richest countries in Central America, to being the poorest in the American Hemisphere, preceding only Haiti on the list. It is said by the Director of the Nicaraguan Economic Institute during the 1980s, father Xabier Golostiaga, that â€Å"the Sandinista government, when they took power, found a country with no financial resources†, and also stated that only 3.5 million dollars were found from the 19 banks that were nationalized; however, according Father Golostiaga, Nicaragua inherited a debt of $1.6 billion dollars, while more than half of that money was never used on the Nicaraguan grounds. Even though the Sandinista government is still regarded as a group of â€Å"bandits† in Nicaragua, they did relieve a great percentage of the external debt that Nicaragua had attained during the Somoza dynasty. At the beginning of the Sandinista mandate, influences shifted from the United States the Soviet Union. Nicaragua would engage in trade with the USSR instead of the United States, as the United States had placed Nicaragua in a sort of Financial Boycott. Once the Cold War was over, and ties with the USSR started to shed, the Sandinista government seemed to lose its grasp over the governmental panorama. In 1990, the Sandinista government accepted elections to go forth, losing to candidate Violeta Barrios de Chamarro of the U.N.O party (National Opposition Union). The Nicaraguan Economic panorama (between 1991 and 2007). In 1991, after the Nicaraguan Revolution and the decline of a communist dictatorship, finally, the first liberal government was established during the globalization era. The UNO mandate, cleared much of the economic rubble that the Sandinista dictatorship had left behind. During Violeta Barrioss presidency, she was denied compensation by the United States for damages during the â€Å"Contras† period. After this, donations from European countries were effected, as Nicaragua still remained the worlds second poorest country. It can be said that Nicaragua was institutionalized in a sort of rehabilitation for 7 years in order to get on its feet again. Seven years later, elections were carried out and the Nicaraguan , where people elected Arnoldo Aleman as president from the Liberal Constitutional Party (PLC). At this moment the economy was â€Å"up and running†; and was receiving donation from developed countries, receiving the most from Spain. Besides the flow of income, due to chronic corruption during his government, a 50 million dollar deficit was filed. Arnoldo Aleman had been diverting governmental funds to a private bank account in Switzerland and was arrested for corruption, and money laundry. Corruption had once again been in the hands of a single man. In 2001, Nicaragua saw yet another election, in which Arnoldos vice-president was elected president, president Enrique Bolanos. Nicaraguas economy suffered a stalemate, as president Bolanoss presidency served to â€Å"clean the corruption of the political panorama† and to pay off most of the debts that Nicaragua has inherited during the Sandinistas regime and the Somoza dynasty. The Economic effects of the ALBA and the CAFTA agreements. The CAFTA and the ALBA treaties share similarities within their texts; however, both treaties are approached from different perspectives. The ALBA treaty, is not just considered a treaty, according to Hugo Chavez, it is a bond between Latin American countries, and as Chavez stated: â€Å"Latin America will save itself alone†. So far, there are only 5 members to the ALBA treaty, which members are: Cuba, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela. The CAFTA on the other hand is seen as simply a â€Å"treaty† between the United States and Central America and the Dominican Republic. This approach by the United States has â€Å"scared off† most of the trust among the population, as it suits the symptoms of an economically manipulative doctrine. The points of the CAFTA are expressed as follows: President Hugo Chà ¡vez in his intervention in ALADI has summarized the principals ALBA as the following topics: 1. To promote the fight against the poverty 2. To preserve the autonomy and Latin American identity 3. The transference of technology, the technical assistance 4. The formation of human resources 5. To prioritize national companies us public beings suppliers 6. The agreements could not be obstacle to the diffusion of the scientific and technological progress 7. To face the abuse of the monopolies and oligopolies through effective mechanisms that assure fare competition 8. The foreign investors will not be able to demand the countries by the handling of state monopolies of public interest 9. Treatment special and differentiated to unequal economies to open opportunities to the weakest 10. Process of wide social participation, which can be characterized like democratic 11. Economic, social, cultural and civil rights should be interdependent, indivisible and can not be waived 12. The commercial interests of the investors will not be able to have supremacy over the human rights or over the sovereignty of the States 13. Creation of founds of structural convergence for the correction of asymmetries The different definitions of Globalization must be kept aside when comparing the ALBA and CAFTA, as the goal of a foreign agreement is to aid Nicaraguas economy regardless of ideological opinion. The CAFTA is regarded as the treaty that puts forth the â€Å"Americanization† of a country, as on the contrary, the ALBA encourages Nationalistic growth. The CAFTA agreement encourages United States corporations into investing their capital in underdeveloped countries in exchange for tax liberation, lower employee costs, and a guarantee in case of corporate loss due to a social instability. The preamble of such documents states: â€Å"The CAFTA is designed to eliminate tariffs and trade barriers and expand regional opportunities for the workers, manufacturers, consumers, farmers, ranchers and service providers of all the countries.† The CAFTA, however, interferes with the local market thus damaging the economy anyway, as the bankrupted domestic companies are fully taxed and pay proper salaries to their employees, when I the other hand the foreign corporations pay miserable fees and when in regard to domestic re-investment, the it is unclear of how much of the companys profits are to be invested. Nicaragua has approved the CAFTA; however it has not been publicly accepted, as in Nicaragua, the CAFTA can be understood in the context of a US strategy to divide opposition in negotiations for other larger trade agreements. Instead of aiding US companies, the objective of the ALBA agreement is to promote cooperation and collective development of the region with an emphasis on fighting poverty and social exclusion. The general feel of the can be appreciated in Venezuelan president Hugo Chavezs opening remark at the United Nations: ALBA is not an agreement of the elite. ALBA is born from down below, from the grassroots of the population, without the people no union would be possible and that is one of the criticisms that we have always made of other integration efforts. The objective is not necessarily to maintain high economic statistics or attract investment, but rather to benefit our populations, so that they have health care, education, jobs, and so they can get out of poverty. Another factor about the ALBA and the CAFTA that must be kept in mind is the alignment is the political alignment that Nicaragua maintains of a socio-democratic regime that owes alliances to Venezuela and Cuba, as the Sandinista party owed much of their existence to Cuba during the Cold War. Due to these populist tendencies, it could be said that, the ALBA is the more appropriate treaty to sign. Socio-Economic Perspective of Globalization It is of public knowledge in Nicaragua that most of the populations regard Globalization as â€Å"not welcome†. The socio-economic perspective of Globalization can be seen from two lights the rural and the industrial perspectives. The rural perspective of globalization can be expressed as the lower classs point of view, while the industrial would affect the middle and upper classes. In short, both of these perspectives contain the entire range of the Nicaraguan society. The people that constitute the rural perspective, also known as the Nicaraguan Farmers, do not welcome globalization because of the economic impact that it will cause society. For most farmers in the outskirts of Managua and on the borders of the country, the prices set by the CAFTA are below the prices they have been used to deal with, meaning that there will be an economic impact for that sector of society. The rural branch of society represents about 70% of the Nicaraguan population, meaning that to off-set an economic pendulum from this side will affect the countrys economy greatly. The industrial perspective of the socio-economic side to globalism might actually benefit from the â€Å"no tariff† agreements as machinery and foreign goods might be less expensive to ship in, and national products will be easier to export. The industrial sector of Nicaragua can be said to constitute by 30% of the population, however, even though it is a minority in regards to the rural sector, the industrial sector represents about 50% of the Gross domestic Product in Nicaragua. The choice between which treaty to chose seems to be the more difficult question as the ALBA benefits the rural sector with its standard wages, while the CAFTA would cause a significant impact in the economy. The industrial sector on the other hand would benefit from both the CAFTA and the ALBA, as the free commerce agreement of â€Å"no tariffs† would mean that the import export of Nicaragua will of a wider range. The issue in mind however, remains on the ideological alignment concern. The rural sector of the Nicaraguan population belongs to a new mix of ideologies, a mix of neo-socialistic liberalism, where a sense of national pride and populism makes the number one goal to push on the Nicaraguan economy. The CAFTA is not appreciated in this perspective as it is seen as an agreement that binds Nicaragua to the will of the United States prices and tariffs, therefore permitting the Unites States to have a sort of control over the Nicaraguan Economy. Nicaragua has already felt the United States economical grasp in the 1970s during the Sandinista government, where the United States employed a boycott on Nicaragua. The sense of resentment has not left the Nicaraguan panorama yet, which means it might take a long time for the CAFTA to be approved by the population. The ALBA in the other hand, is more widely accepted as it involves direct proposals by Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez. In current times, Nicaragua has approved both the CAFTA and the ALBA, the differences, however, are only visible in regards to the material â€Å"gifts† provided by Hugo Chavez. On the Economical perspective, both the ALBA and the CAFTA have not made and impact. Both treaties have rendered the Nicaraguan economy with the same Gros Domestic Product than the year before their signing. Conclusion Nicaragua has been a signatory of the CAFTA for over 3 years now and has also been a signatory of the ALBA treaty for over 1 year now; however both these treaties have not saved Nicaragua from the enormous deficit that it faces. In conclusion, it can be said that Globalization will have an impact in the Nicaraguan Economy in the long-run; however, in regards to Globalism of the Socio-democratic sphere, the Latin American countries should remain united and try to roll back influences from the United States in order to be financially dependent on its own. Nicaragua needs to be financially independent, however, in its current economical state; it cannot stand on its own two feet, which means it should have the temporary support of a greater power. The choices are obviously dived between the CAFTA and the ALBA, which are obviously a reflection of the United States and Venezuela. In the wider-picture, the choice between the ALBA and the CAFTA is the choice between Capitalist democracy and a socio-Populist democracy. The relationship between Nicaragua and the United States has not been as strong as the 1930s in the time of Anastasio Somoza Garcia. The constant intervention from the United States in Nicaragua has rendered a sense of mistrust. In actuality, the CAFTA seems like another brick to the wide and high wall that the United States has been building over Latin America, the first brick being the Monroe Doctrine, which guaranteed the United States right to intervene in any Central American nation if its freedom was being threatened. Even though Nicaragua is a signatory of both the ALBA and CAFTA treaties, so far the ALBA has aided the Nicaraguan economy more than the CAFTA, due to the multiple â€Å"gifts† given by Hugo Chavez to the Republic of Nicaragua, gifts such as Oil Plants. The bottom line, nevertheless, stays the same; Globalization will have an increasing effect on the Nicaraguan economy. Bibliography Ministro de Estado de Venezuela para la Bancoex, Integracià ³n y Comercio Exterior

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Hybrid Cars Essay -- Gasoline Electric Hybrid Automobiles

Field Experience Report Hybrid Cars The world population is increasing at a massive rate and with the increase in population growth more space is needed for building houses, roads, schools, hospitals, etc. â€Å"The world's population will rise from 6.5 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050, according to a United Nations survey released Thursday. Much of the growth will take place in the least-developed countries, where a high rate of mortality is outweighed by an even higher rate of fertility. Their current collective population of 800 million is projected to swell to 1.7 billion in 2050.† (Wald) Human population growth can be seen as having a major impact on the environment as human activities are increasing, pollution is increasing and habitats of various living organisms are being destroyed. The worlds natural resources are being used at a much faster rate and it won’t be long before they are diminished. There is growing concerns from various groups and organizations on the impact to the environment and the living organisms and the amount pollutants produced by human activities. Global warming is one of the current environmental problems facing us today. Global warming is increase in the earth’s average temperature caused by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons. The greenhouse gasses trap the sun’s light within the earth’s atmosphere and causes an increase in the earth’s average temperature. Global warming causes the melting of glaciers and polar ice bergs leading to an increase in sea levels, severe floods and droughts Another current environmental problem is the depletion of the ozone layer. Ozone layer in the earth’s atmosphere has a high concen... ...trieved April 10, 2008, Web site: Fong, Lesley. Personal interview. 15 Mar 2008. Hybrid Cars Advantages and Disadvantages. Retrieved April 13, 2008, Web site: Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell vehicles. Retrieved April 12, 2008, from National Renewable Energy Laboratory Web site: My Car. Retrieved April 12, 2008, from RACV Web site: /wps/wcm/connect/Internet/Primary/my+car/advice+%26+information/ motoring+%26+the+environment/impact+of+cars+on+the+environment Prius Toyota handbook Wald, Jonathan (2005, February 25). U.N.: Population to top 9 billion by 2050. Retrieved April 12, 2008, from CNN Web site: un.population/index.html

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Student Spirituality - Got Jesus? :: Philosophy Religion

Student Spirituality - Got Jesus? You may have an idea of what’s coming here. Yes, this is an essay about religion and spirituality. When you finish reading this essay, you might say, â€Å"It’s 2005; why in the world do you care about religious crap anymore?† Or maybe, â€Å"Get down off your crucifix, man.† Or, â€Å"You’re gay. Get a life.† That one’s my favorite. But before you bust out the Bible jokes, you could try to pinpoint the reason as to why you find religious people to be odd or ridiculous. Let’s see if this sounds familiar. Let’s start when you’re little. Your parents take you to a church, mosque, synagogue, or whatever their place of worship is, and you may not really want to go. You may not even know why they take you there. All you know is that it’s more fun to go home and play video games, watch television, or play with your friends. So already, this religion crap is a pain. Strike one. It also teaches you all this garbage; that you shouldn’t lie, steal, disobey your parents, or use those nasty four-letter words. And when you’re old enough, it tells you that you shouldn’t engage yourself in some activities. You know what they are. Well, where’s the fun in any of that? Strike two. Then, when you want acceptance from the â€Å"popular kids† in middle school, you learn that they all feel the same way. They hate going to church, and following those dumb little rules, and they don’t see the point either. So that makes it official. Religious crap is a waste of time. Strike three. Then you encounter people who follow that junk like it means something. They let those ideas influence or even completely control everything they do in their life. What better a target for ridicule? Those people are so funny, the way they actually follow that crap. It makes you want to laugh. Well, if you need something to seal the deal, that’s it because you can’t bear to be ridiculed by anybody. That would be sacrilegious to your self-esteem. No pun intended. Strike four. We’re not playing baseball. That may explain it, and it may not. If not, it probably comes pretty close. Take all of that, and put it on a college campus, where beer or sex is king in some circles, and career aspirations of financial success pop up. Hopefully. The idea of even making fun of those weirdos gets buried beneath all of that. Student Spirituality - Got Jesus? :: Philosophy Religion Student Spirituality - Got Jesus? You may have an idea of what’s coming here. Yes, this is an essay about religion and spirituality. When you finish reading this essay, you might say, â€Å"It’s 2005; why in the world do you care about religious crap anymore?† Or maybe, â€Å"Get down off your crucifix, man.† Or, â€Å"You’re gay. Get a life.† That one’s my favorite. But before you bust out the Bible jokes, you could try to pinpoint the reason as to why you find religious people to be odd or ridiculous. Let’s see if this sounds familiar. Let’s start when you’re little. Your parents take you to a church, mosque, synagogue, or whatever their place of worship is, and you may not really want to go. You may not even know why they take you there. All you know is that it’s more fun to go home and play video games, watch television, or play with your friends. So already, this religion crap is a pain. Strike one. It also teaches you all this garbage; that you shouldn’t lie, steal, disobey your parents, or use those nasty four-letter words. And when you’re old enough, it tells you that you shouldn’t engage yourself in some activities. You know what they are. Well, where’s the fun in any of that? Strike two. Then, when you want acceptance from the â€Å"popular kids† in middle school, you learn that they all feel the same way. They hate going to church, and following those dumb little rules, and they don’t see the point either. So that makes it official. Religious crap is a waste of time. Strike three. Then you encounter people who follow that junk like it means something. They let those ideas influence or even completely control everything they do in their life. What better a target for ridicule? Those people are so funny, the way they actually follow that crap. It makes you want to laugh. Well, if you need something to seal the deal, that’s it because you can’t bear to be ridiculed by anybody. That would be sacrilegious to your self-esteem. No pun intended. Strike four. We’re not playing baseball. That may explain it, and it may not. If not, it probably comes pretty close. Take all of that, and put it on a college campus, where beer or sex is king in some circles, and career aspirations of financial success pop up. Hopefully. The idea of even making fun of those weirdos gets buried beneath all of that.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

English Literature Essay

â€Å"Yet I seek not a fellow feeling in my misery. No sympathy may I ever find. When I first sought it, it was the love of virtue, the feelings of happiness and affection with which my whole being overflowed, that I wished to be participated. But now that virtue has become to me a shadow, and that happiness and affection are turned into bitter and loathing despair, in what should I seek for sympathy? I am content to suffer alone while my sufferings shall endure; when I die, I am well satisfied that abhorrence and opprobrium should load my memory. Once my fancy was soothed with dreams of virtue, of fame, and of enjoyment. Once I falsely hoped to meet with beings who, pardoning my outward form, would love me for the excellent qualities which I was capable of unfolding. I was nourished with high thoughts of honour and devotion. But now crime has degraded me beneath the meanest animal. No guilt, no mischief, no malignity, no misery, can be found comparable to mine. When I run over the frightful catalogue of my sins, I cannot believe that I am the same creature whose thoughts were once filled with sublime and transcendent visions of the beauty and the majesty of goodness. But it is even so; the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil. Yet even that enemy of God and man had friends and associates in his desolation; I am alone.† [Text from Mary Shelley, Frankenstein 2nd Ed (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996), pg. 159 -160.] In the above passage Mary Shelley uses the monster of Frankenstein view of himself to depict some of the major themes in the novel such as monstrosity and abandonment. The themes of monstrosity and abandonment both appear repeatedly throughout the novel and can also be seen in the above quote. Monstrosity is one of the more prevalent themes in Frankenstein as the central character of the novel is a monster. Frankenstein’s creation is rejected by society because his unnatural physical appearance leads people to characterize him as a monster. Victor’s first reaction when he sees the monster is telling: â€Å"I beheld the wretch — the miserable monster whom I had created† (Shelley, 36). This further compounds the established idea that Frankenstein created a monster and as such he is treated as one. Upon entering the cottage in search of a place to rest, the monster encounters the children of the cottage. The children’s reaction when they first see the monster further demonstrates that people categorize Frankenstein’s creation as a monster because of the creatures’ physical appearance. In the text, the monster describes the children’s  reaction saying: â€Å"(†¦) their horror and consternation on beholding me. Agatha fainted; and Safie, (†¦) rushed out of the cottage. Felix darted forward, and with supernatural force tore me from his father (†¦), he dashed me to the ground, and struck me violently with a stick.† (Shelley, 94). The monster refuses to harm Felix even though he was violently attacked by him. This is shown in the following passage: â€Å"I could have torn him limb for limb, (†¦). But my heart sunk within me as with bitter sickness, and I refrained.† (Shelley, 94-95). Therefore, one can see that the perception of Frankenstein’s creation as a monster is based solely on his appearance as the characterization of the creature as a monster in complete contrast to the monster’s response, when refuses to harm the person who attacked him though he could have easily done so. Monstrosity is also demonstrated by the following quote â€Å"crime has degraded me beneath the meanest animal. No guilt, no mischief, no malignity, no misery, can be found comparable to mine. When I run over the frightful catalogue of my sins (†¦) the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil† (Shelley, 160). The author uses the language of the fallen angel and the devil as a symbol. This particular symbolism is presented as a contrast between â€Å"good† and â€Å"evil.† The monster believed himself to be an angel because of his internal characteristics though his physical appearance causes people to see him as a monster and therefore treats him as a monster. He is deeply affected by this; he fells isolated and alone and this feeling is intensified when Frankenstein refuses to create a female companion for the monster. The monster was very hurt by this and therefore he starts killing. This explains the imagery created by the author who uses the monster’s words when he states that â€Å"the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil.† The monster sins and truly becomes a monster and a devil after he begins to kill. An act that the monster w as, arguably, forced to commit because of his isolation which deeply impacted him. The abandonment of Frankenstein monster is also a recurring theme throughout the novel. The monster is abandoned by his creator and when he tries to integrate himself into society, he is shunned by the people solely because of his physical attributes which are beyond his control. He is rejected only because of his physique, an aspect of his persona that overshadows his, at first, gentle and kind nature and prevents society from seeing the good in him. This is made clear when Victor says, â€Å"When I thought of him, I gnashed my teeth, my  eyes became inflamed, and I ardently wished to extinguish that life which I had so thoughtlessly bestowed.† (Shelley, 62). Frankenstein shares similar feelings; he does not believe that he is worthy and he also feels that he should be abandoned. This is shown when he states â€Å"I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on.† (Shelley, 160). This shows the protest against the monster’s existence as the monster does not feel he is worthy and even his creator wi shes that he had not created him. The theme of abandonment is also present in the novel through the following quote â€Å"the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil. Yet even that enemy of God and man had friends and associates in his desolation; I am alone† and â€Å"I am content to suffer alone while my sufferings shall endure† (Shelley, 160). This quote is significant because when the monster speaks his tone evokes a reaction of sympathy from the audience. The sadness and loneliness in the monster’s speech can be felt by the audience and becomes intensified when he states â€Å"even that enemy of God and man had friends and associates in his desolation; I am alone† (Shelley, 160) the monster is communicating how alone and abandoned he feels and when he states that even people who have committed worst acts than he has, the enemies of God, have friends and he does not the audience cannot help but feel a sense of sympathy and compassion for the monster based on the tone in his language despite his physical appearance. Society’s treatment of the monster also shaped his view of himself. The monster views himself as an angel who is made into a monster â€Å"I cannot believe that I am the same creature whose thoughts were once filled with sublime and transcendent visions of the beauty and the majesty of goo dness. But it is even so; the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil.† (Shelley, 160). Frankenstein once viewed himself as a beautiful creature who was inherently good, which is demonstrated when he helped the peasants and saved the girl from drowning (Shelley, 77). However, society continually shunned and rejected the monster and he was therefore forced into solitude and this is what caused him to start committing evil acts. This is demonstrated when Frankenstein murders Victor’s younger brother, Victor’s best friend, and Victor’s wife after Victor aborts the creation of a female monster which the monster demanded so that he would no longer be in solitude. The following quote also reflects some of the sentiments that the monster experiences throughout the novel: No sympathy may I ever find. When I first sought it, it was the love of virtue, the feelings of happiness and affection with which my whole being overflowed (†¦) But now that virtue has become to me a shadow, and that happiness and affection are turned into bitter and loathing despair, in what should I seek for sympathy? This quote summarizes the emotions that the monster feels throughout the novel. One can sense the despair in his voice and that he has lost all faith that he will ever be loved and accepted by others. He has accepted that he will always be abandoned and will forever remain alone. In conclusion, the chosen passage is representative of the entire text of Frankenstein as it demonstrates some of the most prevalent themes in the novel such as monstrosity and abandonment. The text demonstrates the monster’s loneliness and other people’s belief that he is a savage. These are recurring themes throughout the novel as the monster has to constantly deal with the consequences of people’s judgment of him. These themes are also important for the body of work in general as it drives the monster and has significant influence on his actions.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Cheating Quotes Essay

Evidence 1. â€Å"There is too much competition between students, which leads to increased pressure to do well. Cheating becomes a way to get the edge over the other students in the class. In addition, the penalties for getting caught are mild.† 2. â€Å"Today there is more pressure placed on students to do well. They are expected to receive good grades, play a sport, and volunteer if they are to be looked at by a good college. With a B tainting your transcript, a college might not look at you.† 3. â€Å"Students who would usually cheat get sucked into believing it is the only way to get ahead in school: If the cheaters are doing better then they are and not getting caught, then they had better try it.† 4. â€Å"Schools are drifting away from emphasizing learning and are emphasizing the grade instead. When the thirst for knowledge is replenished in the students mind, the desire for the grade without the work will dissolve. Only then will cheating decline.† Commentary 1. Wenke is indicating that the competition to get better grades has increased, and the only way for the students to stay in the competition is to cheat. She also says that because of the competition the pressure increased which causes the students stress, which then pushes them towards cheating. The students have no fear of cheating because the penalties will not affect them or there grades in a major way. 2. Wenke is trying to show us that now education is based around getting good grades and doing well and not about getting a good education and learning. She also is saying that colleges are looking for students with better grades and people with more extracurricular activities and with out A grades colleges may not even look at your transcript. 3. Wenke is telling us that cheating is the only way students can achieve success in school. Some students try their hardest to get the best grade they can achieve, but then see that the cheaters that put in less effort and get better grades. This makes more students want to cheat because that way you could focus on other things and not only schoolwork. So Wenke is saying what is stopping the good students from trying to cheat if the cheaters are prospering while they are not. 4. Wenke is indicating that cheating will only decline if knowledge is a greater quality for students rather than getting a better grade. If all the students want only knowledge and the grades do not affect their education then there will not be as much cheating as there is now. So the end of cheating will only occur if students care more about knowledge instead of grades.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Qualites of an Effective Helper

QUALITES OF AN EFFECTIVE HELPER I believe that ill be an effective helper because I am caring trustful honest and open minded. I also know What its like self , family problems I also know the feelings of being unwanted and unloved is so Powerful that its hard to over come. I am motivated by desire to help all types of people work thought their problems no matter how big or little they are. The qualities that I have that will make me an effective helper are that I am a good listener, I am open- minded about all most everything even if I don’t really understand.I am honest and I don’t mind telling the truth to someone even if it hurts their feelings sometimes people need to hear the truth it helps them see it through someone’s else’s eyes, but I also know when to be respectful to other people needs, beliefs and values. I have had some personal problems that I think other people may have, I don’t mind sharing them with a client to show them that I have been down that road in life and with sharing I would hope that it will help our relationship.I don’t like to judge people because at some point in life everyone has had some kinds of problems and I have no right to judge we are all human we all live and learn. I have an happy go lucky presonallalliti so smiling and showing that I care comes easy for me, I have no problem putting myself on the spot to break the ice with a client. I am a patience person, I know that time is the key to help out with the relationship,, I know that it is hard to open up to someone that you think will judge you. I believe that helping a client find forgiveness it the key to most problems and that forgiving ourselves is one of the hardest things to do.I believe that everyone should have respect for all and be understanding, I try to understand everyone’s views, values and beliefs but when it comes to someone that has sexual abuse or killed a child would be really hard for me because I see ch ildren as the best gift in life, I don’t understand how any one would want to hurt them in any way. I know that they may have had it done to them . If I had to work with that has done one of those thing I would try really hard to put my feelings aside as best as I could. Nicki Prudhomme

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Why Agriculture Spread During the Neolithic Revolution

Around 10,000 years ago, a dramatic transformation occurred in parts of the Near East that forever affected the human experience. These were the economic and social changes from hunting and gathering subsistence strategies, which characterised over 99 per cent of our long tenure on Earth, to ones emphasising food production and settling down in small villages. This was not an easy transition, nor was it a universal one. Once it occurred, though, it changed the course of human history. Usually known as the â€Å"Neolithic Revolution†. (Simmons 2007: 1)There has been much speculation by academics in many disciplines as to the reasons why agriculture was developed and employed throughout the Neolithic revolution; and how the agricultural developments dispersed across the globe. However, I believe that there are unanimous definitions on both the Neolithic Revolution and agriculture. Both key to the answer of this essay. I believe the Neolithic Revolution to be the first agricultur al revolution to take place globally, which led to people becoming sedentary, resorting to agriculture instead of hunter gathering and mobile communities. Gupta 2010) Cohen (1977: 1) has a similar attitude towards the definition of the Neolithic revolution as he believes it to be, â€Å"the economic and social change [] which witnessed the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as man’s major mode of subsistence. † Agriculture, as defined by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1973), is â€Å"the science and art of cultivating the soil, including the gathering n of the crops and the rearing of livestock†. However, I believe that agriculture includes other aspects, which link in with it to create a fully operating agricultural system.These include, ‘farming’ and ‘domestication’, both pivotal for agricultural success. Farming is described as, â€Å"the business of cultivating land and raising ‘stock’† whilst domestication is â€Å"described as the action of ‘farming or bringing under control’. (More specifically, domestication can be defined as ‘the evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals to the extent that individuals within that population lose their ability to survive and produce offspring in the wild’: Blumler and Byrne 1991: 24). (Barker 2006: 2) Simmons (2007) concurs that the Neolithic revolution was a transformation of the economic system at the time, but it was also a social change in how food was used and viewed in differing ways. To fully understand the impact of agriculture to Neolithic societies, I will use case studies to highlight my points. These will include the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, believed to be the first place where the use of agriculture has been found as Barker (ibid: 11) suggests ‘that the first farming would ha ve started in the ‘Near East’.However, I will also be using case studies from Africa, specifically the Ethiopian Highlands and the Kuk Swamp in Papua New Guinea. As Cohen mentions that â€Å"the most striking fact about early agriculture, however, is precisely that it is such a universal event† (1977: 5) therefore, it will be interesting to discuss the reasons why such rapid dispersion of agricultural development occurred across the Neolithic world. Why did the people around 10,000 years ago resort to a new way of life and with new ways of feeding?A way of life that was completely different from the people before them who had undertook hunting and gathering to feed themselves; a way of life that led to the beginning of agriculture and turning from mobile to non-mobile communities; forager societies that had been, â€Å"relatively unchanged since the depths of the Ice Age†. (Bogucki 1999: 191) There are many reasons that archaeologists have discussed about why this transition occurred in what has been coined as ‘The Neolithic Revolution’. There are many reasons why this transition occurred and I will explore many of these reasons.I will be looking at the reasons that are incorporated in Barbara Stark’s (1986) three main model types, which show the transition of foraging to the production of food in an agricultural sense. â€Å"Push†, â€Å"Pull† and â€Å"social’ models are used by Stark which create an ‘umbrella’ effect on the main underlying reasons which can be incorporated to fully explore the reasons why agriculture began and how it spread across the globe. When there is stress on a population, it can lead to the population being pushed to protect themselves to ensure that the stress does not damage them.These stresses, in the cause of agricultural causation include population pressure and/or climate change. The stress imposed on the population could have led to the beginning of agriculture being used. (Stark 1986) Many archaeologists have discussed reasons why agriculture began under this umbrella of a ‘push’ model. Childe (1936) began much of the work on the origins of agriculture by developing the Oasis-Propinquity theory; a theory that incorporated a significant climatic change at the end of the Pleistocene, which had a major effect on how animals, plants and humans operated to feed.Childe created the Oasis-Propinquity theory because he believed that this climatic change caused the areas, beginning in the Near East, especially the Fertile Crescent, to become arid and dry, thus becoming deserts. Simmons (2007: 11-12) thought that the new desert conditions of the Near East was causing â€Å"plants and animals [to die] or [they were] becoming scarce. † Without the presence of water nearby to most of the humans, plants and animals in the Near East and North Africa, it led to the congregation of these creatures to areas where water wa s available, such as the desert oases in the Near East.The close proximity that the plants, animals and humans had to undertake daily, it eventually led to the domestication of plants and animals. (Simmons 2007; Bogucki 1999; Pluciennik and Zvelebil 2009) Childe (1936: 77) considers that humans, plants and animals all became â€Å"united in an effort to circumvent the dreadful power of the drought†. The Oasis-Propinquity theory by Childe is only half of the story as to why agriculture began in the Near East. With this theory in mind, the domestication of plants would have been tending to and re-planting year after year.This would have led to the creation of some form of agricultural ideas and system that would have to be used to ensure that the domesticated crops can be utilised to their optimum. This early system of agricultural development would have had to be moulded into the systems that provided significantly greater quantities of food that would be able to sustain a pop ulation that would have been growing because of the change into a sedentary lifestyle. When Childe produced the theory in 1936, his investigations would have been one of the key reasons as to why agriculture developed.Despite still being a key argument in the origin of agriculture, other academics and evidence that has come to light since Childe’s Man makes Himself. Bogucki (1999: 186-187) mentions, â€Å"The difficulty is there is no evidence of widespread desiccation during the period in question between 15,000 and 10,000 years ago. † Paleoclimatic and geomorphological evidence of Braidwood’s Iraq-Jarmo project came to the conclusion supporting Bogucki’s (1999) claim that of no evidence of widespread desiccation. (Watson 1995) As Simmons (2007: 13) suggests that â€Å"these projects [] found no support for Childe’s claim of desiccation. This lack of evidence produces a significant amount of doubt to the Oasis-Propinquity. If there wasn’t a global change in climatic behaviour, it cannot be assumed that dry conditions occurred which resulted in the congregations at oases. Also, Childe’s work puts emphasis on the domestication of primarily animals at the oases and does not hold the beginnings of plant domestication, which inevitably lead to agriculture, in high regard and it was not accredited in his work. (Watson 1995; Bogucki 1999)Despite Simmons (2007: 12) mentioning that â€Å"Childe’s model is frequently acted as one of the origins of agriculture†, I believe that due to the climatic evidence of the time disagreeing with the theory of major climatic change resulting in dry and arid conditions, the Oasis-Propinquity theory does not hold as much regard with the origins of agriculture. I feel that other reasons incorporated in the push model have a much greater impact than Childe’s theory. I believe that the evidence found throughout the Fertile Crescent proves a lacking of substance for th e Oasis-Propinquity Theory and could provide evidence against it.Through the Fertile Crescent, establishments and the societies built up within have no been on major waterways (apart from Jericho), which diminishes the theory. This is because the domestication of all the wild resources occurred without the need for a congregation of plants, animals and humans in a small area surrounding oases’. The speed of domestication of Einkorn for example, showed that this congregation did not need to occur. Einkorn could be domesticated easily due to a number of genetic loci that it was able.Wild cereals and Einkorn had very similar ancestors, which allowed domestication to occur quite easily in the Crescents. (Zohary and Hopf 1993) This shows how significant other theories were in understanding the origins of agriculture. The Hilly Flanks Theory was produced to directly contest Childe’s theory. Braidwood was not enthused with the Oasis-Propinquity theory and did not hold it in h igh regard despite it being one of the significant and key models for the origins of agriculture, and pursued answers for the agricultural origin elsewhere. Braidwood 1960; Braidwood and Howe 1960) The Hilly Flanks Theory was created because â€Å"Braidwood thought that the best place to look for early domestication was where the habitats of the wild precursors of wheat, barley, sheep and goats overlapped. [] With desiccation and other widespread climatic changes discounted as a proximal cause of agriculture, Braidwood sought an explanation in human behaviour. He suggested that food production in the Old World emerged in certain â€Å"nuclear zones† in the arc of the Taurus and Zagros mountains of the Near East known as the Fertile Crescent†. Bogucki 1999: 187) I believe that his view on agricultural origins held a decent basis, as it feels natural for first cultivations by farmers on cereals within their natural habitat. (Miller 1992: 49) Braidwood’s theory was based, quite simply, on that the habitats of the Hilly Flank became so familiar to the people who lived there, that they started to domesticate the plants and animals that lived there in their natural habitats. Archaeological sites in Papa New Guinea, especially in the Upper Wahgi Valley, hold evidence for this theory.The importance of the sites in this region cannot be understated because the evidence that has been found as it showed agricultural developments without any significant evidence to suggest social transformations. Therefore, it can be assumed that people relocated to areas of natural wild resources to undergo â€Å"animal and plant exploitation† (Denham 2011). Without evidence for climatic change, this highlights significant headway in the Hilly Flanks theory. As Simmons (2007: 14) suggests that the people on the Hilly Flank had to become â€Å" [settled] in by groups who came to understand and manipulate plants and animals around them. From Braidwood’s work on the Hilly Flank Theory, there are many assumptions to be made about the origins of the first agricultural systems and I believe that the Hilly Flank Theory holds significant worth to the argument. I believe that it would be sensible for the first farmers to begin cultivating land that they foraged on and/ or lived on as mobile communities. I think this because the ‘raw materials’ were already en situ and the farmers did not have to relocate anywhere else. However, with this idealist notion of ‘being sensible’ views can only be mentioned due to indsight and the difference in culture that we see in our western cultures today. It must be noted that with over two millennia of the populations on earth being hunter-gatherers and foragers, the idea of becoming a sedentary farmer would have been very alien to them. Braidwood’s work on the Hilly Flanks Theory and the subsequent dismissal of Childe’s Oasis-Propinquity theory resulted in a signif icant change in the way agricultural origins were looked at and discussed. However, I believe that the push model had a significant result on why the origins of agriculture were continually discussed.I also must consider population pressure as an important argument for the origins of agriculture. In the early transitional period that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution could have been that many of the populations that existed changed from being mobile communities to becoming sedentary; non-mobile communities. The population that the mobile communities had was in relation to the â€Å"mobility and flexibility of hunter-gatherer organisation† (Green 1980; Lee 1972). Green (1980) discusses that population pressure is because of the decrease (or lack of) logistical mobility.When the population causes an effect on the mobility and flexibility, it can be assumed that the sedentary lifestyle was adopted. It could be argued that with a sedentary lifestyle, the population of the community could increase exponentially as Bellwood (2005: 23) says, â€Å"any major increase in the degree of sedentism [] would have encouraged a growing population, via shorter birth intervals, and would also have placed a greater strain on food supplies and other resources in the immediate vicinity of the campsite or village†.This resulted in the development of Binford’s (1968) Population Pressure model, which; Argued that once people (the early Vatutian in the Levant) became sedentary, populations inevitably increased, leading to an increasing use of locally available plant foods, such as cereals, that had previously been considered marginal. From this intensive use of cereals, and the technology ass65ociated with this processing, a regular cycle of plants and harvesting occurred, ultimately resulting in domestication. (Simmons 2007: 15)This increase in the population could have been down to a number of reasons including; an improved and more regularity in diets, i ncreased life expectancy and fertility, greater protection from diseases and â€Å"the need for more people to assist in seasonal harvests of wild plants† (Simmons 2007: 14-15; Bellwood 2005). Flannery (1969) elaborated further on Binford’s Population Pressure model, as Miller (1992: 49) mentions that Flannery â€Å"suggested that subsistence changes that took place prior to agriculture – during the â€Å"broad spectrum revolution†, could have been a response to population growth in the marginal zone†.A significant population increase can cause dramatic effects on the resources of the surrounding area. It would have come to the point that a foraging and hunter-gathering society no longer has the ability to provide resources for the whole population and leads people to try and find other sources for the resources. These resources, which provide the basis for sustaining life, could be pushed into competitions for the resources. With such competition, I believe that with the knowledge that resources would eventually run out, the population would have resorted to basic domestication of plants and animals for more reliable sources of resources. Neilson 2006) In times where pressures on the population seem great, the adoption of agriculture can lead to too much stress being inflicted on the availability of resources on the population. Stark (1986) emphases that this could create a pushing factor onto the population into agriculture. Without the push into agriculture, the population would have ceased to exist. Despite population pressure having a obvious impact on the ability for sufficient resources to be gained from hunter-gathering, it could have lead to the adoption of agriculture.However, some do not value the Population Pressure theory and believe it â€Å"inadequate as an explanation [because] for it necessary the increased population must be a purely local phenomenon which cannot exist without [locational] factors [or const raints]† â€Å"(Bronson 1975: 74). Sauer (1952) also believes with Bronson that a resource crisis due to pressures on the population due to a significant increase was not a highlighted reason for the genesis of agriculture. Sauer makes it known that the transition that occurred in the Neolithic was due to an altering relationship and the interaction between culture and the environment.This could lead to assumptions that Sauer did not believe that the transition developed out of a lack of food and resources to the ever-growing population. Green (1980) also argues â€Å"that population growth does not necessarily precondition either innovation or increased economic productivity†. As innovation would have to be the precondition to agricultural development, Green’s argument provides significantly altering evidence, which could lead to a different viewpoint on the origins of agriculture.This change in the relationship with culture and environment led to Stark’ s pull model. This cultural change that Sauer discussed had the ability to pull people into adopting the agricultural way of life, discarding the old hunter-gathering way of life. The pull model was based on a shift towards an unprecedented reliance on specific resources, which led to an alteration in the relationship between humans, animals and plants. This reliance ensured that the population was pulled into agriculture (Stark 1986).The pull model also put emphasis on the technological innovation that was developed pre-agriculture and such technology ‘pulled’ the population into the uses of agriculture and to benefit from such implementation of agriculture. The pull model â€Å"prevents a group from reverting to its earlier pattern of resource use† and this can be why, in the eyes of those who believe the pull model was the reason for agricultural development, that the pull model was so successful, effectively pulling those in further along in advancement. Dona ld Henry (1989) proposed a â€Å"pull† model for agricultural arising in the Near East.In his view, there were two key moments in the process of agricultural origins in the Levant. The first occurred around 10,500 BC when a global temperature increase promoted long-term settlement and necessitated a shift from what Henry calls â€Å"simple† foraging to â€Å"complex† foraging. A variety of high-yield resources, including wild cereals, were exploited, and restraints on population growth were relaxed. About 2000 years later, this complex foraging system collapsed possibly as the result of a second climatic change, and the foragers had two options, depending on where they lived.In the highly productive areas of the Levant, where the highest populations were, they began to cultivate cereals. In the marginal areas, people reverted to a simple foraging system. (Bogucki 1999: 190) Henry’s continuation on Stark’s pull model shows that he believes that envi ronmental pull factors resulted in the origins of agriculture. This is especially clear in the Levant where location dominated the resource development, for example: either hunter gathering and foraging or cultivation and domestication – resulting in agriculture.It can be assumed that the majority of highly populated areas of the Levant went to cultivation and that led to the growth of domestic dwellings. Those in marginal areas would have shifted towards domestic dwellings instead of staying as a mobile community. I also believe that technological advancement had a significant impact on the origins of agriculture and the further development of agricultural ways of life. Diamond (1997a) hold technological advancement as one of three linked developments which can be included within Stark’s pull model to try and develop a reason for the agricultural genesis.Technological development allowed people greater ways to â€Å"collect, process and store foods† (Simmons 20 07: 21), which is crucial when harvesting and cultivating is used to process foods and store the years amount of food. Without this development ensuring significantly greater storage capabilities, it causes hunting and gathering daily obsolete. Technological advances created developments, which could be used to â€Å"kill or displace hunter/gatherers† (ibid: 21-22). With violence being a consequence of technology, it would have force those hunter-gatherers into some form of agricultural developments just to survive.Technological advances started to produce greater items for warfare that were superior to what hunter-gatherers were using, mainly for the collection of resources, not fighting. Also, the other variables within Diamonds reasons for the origins were that there was a significant drop in species that used to be wild and resulted in the â€Å"human occupation of available habitats in order to decrease the risk of unpredictability† (ibid: 21). With the decline of wild species, the only option for the population would be to occupy their habitats to ensure that food could be hunted.However, by moving into the habitats were wild species were growing and living, it would have led to significant domestication of the species to ensure that the food is always present. However, there is some opposition to pull models, as Green (1980) says that â€Å"invention-pull models, which attributed agricultural change to technological innovation [which resulted in] considerations of agricultural change being dependent on technological innovation were considered non explanatory because they did not deal with the causes of innovation†.By being pulled into a change, populations would not be able to revert back to their earlier systems of gathering and hunting for food. However, others believe that social changes had a significant impact on the agricultural origins and were developed as one of Stark’s models for agricultural origins – the so cial model. Within the social model, there are numerous theories as to the origin of agriculture, however, all the theories, as Bender (1978) emphasised and â€Å"found that social changes acted independent of technology and economy to create pressures in production† (Simmons 2007: 18).Similar to Bender, Tilley (1996) also believes that greater social and ideological beliefs and their significance played an overwhelming part in the domestication of food rather than economic reasons. The theories that are under the umbrella of the social model are based on social development and competition. Competition feasting was a key theory set forward for the social model.It represents food as power and has been categorised as the â€Å"â€Å"food fight† model† (Simmons 2007: 18) by both proponents and critics (Hayden 1995: 282; Smith 2001: 218-221) With certain individuals accumulating surpluses of food, these could be transformed into items with value. With the accumulati on of surplus food, it would allow people to create feasts for the population. The individuals creating the feast would be held in higher regard in the community because it shows people who were generating the most food for the population.Feasting is a key part of the social model â€Å"given that the Neolithic revolved around food in one way or another; it seems somehow appropriate that feasting be considered as a reasons for its origin† (Simmons 2007: 18-19). By feasting, it was the first aspect of competition within communities. Competitive feasting would have been used as a method for the development and consolidation of power. Competition is a very important aspect of human society as it leads to the best being in positions of power. Within the Neolithic, extra resources must be utilised to ensure that power, influence and status is promoted and competed for. Feasting, gift exchange, trade, and other forms of codified, often ritualised contact† (Pluciennik and Zvel ebil 2009: 469) are the main ways for people to promote their own standings. This promotion of people’s own standards resulted in the need for extra resources beyond their dietary needs in the immediate timescale. This would result in overproduction. Overproduction by hunting and gathering would have got significantly harder with the climatic ever so slightly changing during the early Neolithic.Therefore, agriculture, a â€Å"more intensive system of exploitation† (ibid: 469) must be adopted to ensure overproduction can occur. Hayden (1995) believes that the need for competitive feasting lead to the first domestication of both plants and animals for the production of extra foodstuffs. With the use of food designated as prestige items, the accumulators could exceed their rivals in the consolidation of power (ibid). Runnels and van Andel (1988) have suggested that social customs, such as trade and competitive feasting would have led to motives for food production.Cowgill (1975) mentions that the more food an individual produces, the greater social and political power they possess. This analogy perfectly shows how important food was within a competitive environment and was used significantly to gain the upper hand. Without the implementation of agriculture, the excess food would not have been able to be produced and the ability to gain competitive edge over other individuals would have been diminished. As Miller (1992: 51) says, â€Å"[cultivation was] to ensure a reliable food supply or to increase their food supply to satisfy growing social or dietary needs†.However, Hayden has also put an argument across that does not believe the social model to be a significant reason for agriculture to begin. Hayden (1990: 57-62, 1992: 13) mentions that the social model could not have resulted in a Neolithic revolution to occur immediately as a lot of arguments believe happened. Hayden comments include the fact that a new culture of sharing food would ha ve taken a large amount of time to implement and the fist domesticated plants and animals would not have been appropriate for daily consumption due to his belief that they would have been delicacies.Despite this, I find this argument extremely thin and in my opinion, find it difficult to dismiss such a inquisitive social model, which, due to the change in social behaviour in the Neolithic, could have been very likely to occur, especially when the Neolithic â€Å"was an ideological phenomenon, a new way of thinking† (Simmons 2007: 20). I find that the Neolithic was an era where new ideologies and cultures were being developed and implemented globally throughout the Neolithic on an unprecedented scale.The arguments about how and why agriculture was developed and adopted throughout the globe in the Neolithic have produced very different and sometimes contradictory reasons why the origins of agriculture occurred. However, no one can deny the importance that agriculture had on the world as a whole and the impacts that it had to society as a whole. The impact that agriculture had, in my opinion, is unprecedented and extremely important to how we live in the society today. I can assume that most academics on the topic of agriculture believe that the impact of its adoption during the Neolithic was massively important to the world.Cole (1967: ix) made this quite clear by saying, â€Å"the development of full food production was an evolution rather than a sudden revolution; yet there is no doubt that the consequences of this change were revolutionary in the fullest sense of the world† and as Pluciennik and Zvelebil (2009: 467) also put forward the idea that the adoption of agriculture was one of revolutionary proportions, a â€Å"quantum leap in human history, and the basis for the development of widespread societal characteristics, both good and bad. †There are many main impacts that can be connected to the implementation of agriculture as the main characteristic of subsistence. By domesticating both plants and animals, it led to â€Å"increased sedentism, smaller social units, individual domiciles, investment in burial ritual and trade† (Bogucki 1999: 191), â€Å"specialisation in diet [was] also encouraged by the localisation of agricultural production† (Rindos 1984: 270) and â€Å"populations practicing agriculture come to be more successful relative to both domesticating and on-domesticatory. These populations not only will be generally larger but will also be dispersing at far greater rates [than populations that are not practicing agriculture]† (ibid: 267). Pluciennik and Zvelebil (2009: 467) mention that the impacts include â€Å"sedentism, population growth, certain endemic diseases, social and political hierarchies, literacy, cities, specialised arts and crafts, widespread environmental degradation, extensive trade, property, laws, morality, and more generally civilisation. It could be very easy to use these and suggest the impacts that agriculture had on today’s society, without thinking about the immediate impacts that occurred to the Neolithic society when agriculture was implemented. When agriculture was implemented in the early Neolithic, it can be assumed this would have led to a population increase due to the majority of early farmers becoming settled and becoming sedentary, resulting in a decrease in mortality rates due to better diets and better immune systems.With improved sedentary conditions, population numbers would begin to increase at a much quicker rate, putting significant pressure on food stores, resulting with the need for improved agricultural efficiency and crop numbers. This continues the cycle of population increase, greater sedentary conditions and thus, more agriculture. However, in the background of this cycle, an evolution of social, economic and religious (Bogucki 1999) norms would have occurred changing the culture of the Neolithic signi ficantly.With the culture changing constantly to include agriculture, it would have led to the societies having a greater involvement with agriculture especially when it became the main and/or only way for food to be acquired. The agricultural revolution led to the societies throughout the globe being hit by these impacts and resulting in a totally different world, and in the grand scheme, the beginnings of agriculture and the beginning of the Neolithic revolution could be argued to be the beginnings of civilisation, as we know it today.The impacts that agriculture had on societies throughout the last 10,000 years are unprecedented and the effects of which are still seen today – with some arguing that without agriculture, the world, as we know it in the modern time would not be the same. â€Å"Social, economic, and political complexity [] would not have emerged without the existence of agriculture† (ibid: 203)To conclude, â€Å"in the last 30 years, archaeologists hav e made considerable progress towards understanding the origins of agriculture, but the question of why prehistoric people made the transition from foraging to farming is still elusive† (ibid: 191) pinpointing one reason for why agriculture was adopted would be impossible. However, in my opinion, I believe that understanding why agriculture was developed, a number of reasons must be acknowledged and inter-link to fully determine the true reasons why agriculture was developed during the Neolithic revolution.The â€Å"push†, â€Å"pull† and social models that were established by Stark (1986) provided the most efficient way of trying to understand why agriculture was developed and it led to a significant advance in the way of thinking for its origins. However, â€Å"in the 1990s, social factors [had] begun to assume prominence in attempts to explain the origins of agriculture, although â€Å"push† and â€Å"pull† models still have considerable importan ce† (Bogucki 1999: 190).I believe that the social model provides more all-round reasons for agricultural origins, especially competitive feasting which provided an activity for the whole society to undertake together, thus, producing the beginnings of a society, and trade. This would increase in importance with the development and the increase of more sedentary populations. Despite this, I also feel that the push and pull models are very important. Without population pressures and some climatic change, agriculture would never have been produced.In my opinion, agriculture created the easiest and most efficient way for agriculture to spread and disperse across the globe through trade. Socially, trade was very important within a society, but in the greater picture, it played a much more important role in its dispersal. With the increase in trade, societies would have improved in prosperity and developed. Without agriculture, this would not have been possible. This leads to how mu ch of an impact agricultural development and its adoption had on societies across the globe.Without food production from agriculture, cultural advancements leading to the growth of urban areas, including technological, economic and political developments, which eventually led to the modern societies, we know today (Simmons 2007; Diamond 1997a). The impact that agriculture had on societies cannot be measured electronically, scientifically or any other way because the impacts are on an unprecedented scale; impacts spanning from one corner of the globe to the other and affecting everything.With the beginning of agriculture came the beginning of the New World, a world of new culture, beliefs and ways of life, economic, political and technological change and developments, resulting in the way we are today. Food production triggered the emergence of kings, bureaucrats, scribes, professional soldiers, and metal workers and other full time craftsmen. 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