Monday, August 19, 2019

The Eclectic Model Essay -- Education

For my presentation I chose the Eclectic teaching method used in Physical Education. Going into the project I had no idea what the model was or what it involved. I quickly learned the importance of the Eclectic model and how it is the most vital and widely used teaching method out. The reason for this is because it is the combination of all the teaching models and grouping them to the different age levels of the students. Obviously, there are certain games or activities that you would not do with 3rd graders because they are not developed enough to handle them. On the other hand you may not do an activity with high schoolers because they are over developed for it and they will not gain any benefits from it. To better explain how the eclectic model would be used I researched other teaching models and broke them down into 3 categories where they fit best: Elementary, Middle School, and High School. Elementary Physical Education is usually the first time when young children are being professionally taught how to control their bodies and perform basic skills that they will need to succeed in physical activity throughout their lifetime. This is the most important part of a child’s Physical Education because without these skills and abilities they will not be able to exercise properly through life and it could also discourage them from trying different activities. If this happens our country will become even more obese and out of shape. The models we decided fit best in this age group of students were Developmental Education, Tactical Games Model, Movement Model, Interdisciplinary Elementary Education, and Inquiry Model. We discovered that these in particular taught objectives that younger children need before they could move onto m... ...entary school ages as well. When a school district decides to use the eclectic model in their PE program they do it in hopes that the students will apply what they have learned grades K-12 to the rest of their life. As PE teachers it is our job to give students the information needed to live a long, healthy life. When taught correctly, the eclectic model does just that. Works Cited 1. Siedentop, Daryl, Jacqueline Herkowitz, and Judith Rink. Elementary Physical Education Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. Print. 2. Physical Education for Lifelong Fitness: The Physical Best Teacher's Guide. Leeds: Human Kinetics Europe, 2005. Print. 3. Manimtim-Florescar, Ruth. "Teaching Method: Eclectic | The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online." The Manila Bulletin Newspaper Online. 27 May 2008. Web. .

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Prince Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha :: Chinese China History

Buddha This report will be about the life of Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, and his influences on the people around him. It will explain how the religion of Buddhism came about and how the Buddha created it. It will also include not only what influenced Buddha to start preaching, but what influenced the people to listen. Prince Siddhartha Gautama, who would later be known as Buddha, was born in Lumbini, Nepal around the year 563 BC. He was the son of two important great people. Siddhartha's father's name was Shuddhodana, the King of the Sakyas. His mother, Queen Maya, was a lady "of perfect form and bee-black tresses, fearless in heart and full of grace and virtue." Siddhartha got his name from one of his mother's dreams. Her dream was that an elephant with 6 tusks, carrying a lotus flower in its trunk, touched the right side of Queen Maya's body. That was when Siddhartha was miraculously conceived. When she told her husband about her dream, he called Brahmins, or learned men to interpret it. They predicted that the child one-day would be the greatest king in the world or the greatest ascetic in the world. So that's why they called him Siddhartha, meaning "he whose aim is accomplished." When Siddhartha was about 20 years old he married Yasodhara, who was the daughter of one of the King's ministers. S iddhartha and his new wife had a child a year after they got married. They called their son Rahula, which means "impediment." Nine years later Siddhartha asked his charioteer to take him for a ride throughout the city. While riding he saw three things he had never seen before. One was an elder man, another was a man suffering from illness, and finally he saw a dead body surrounded by mourners. Since he had never seen anything like that before he asked his charioteer, Channa, what was wrong. He responded and told the Prince that these things were natural and unavoidable, that happen to all kinds of people. "Everything is transient; nothing in permanent in this world....Knowing that, I can find delight in nothing...How can a man, who knows that death is quite inevitable, still feel greed in his heart, enjoy the world of senses and not weep in this great danger?" Once again Siddhartha asked Channa to take him out into the city again and this time he was to see the last of four images that would change his life forever.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

“Death of a Salesman” Detailed Analysis Essay

ARTHUR MILLER Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. He was a prominent figure in American theatre, writing dramas that include plays such as All My Sons (1947), Death of a Salesman (1949), The Crucible (1953) and A View from the Bridge Miller was often in the public eye, particularly during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s, a period during which he testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee, received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama and the Prince of Asturias Award, and was married to Marilyn Monroe. SUMMARY It is important to bear that the story is told through the mind and memory of Willy Loman and there is a constant back and forth between two periods ,1928 and 1942.The first period is one of the happiness and contentment when Willy Loman is young and dynamic and the children ,Biff and Happy are running about in shorts ;the second is one of gloom and discontent -Willy is now old and ,virtually out of a job and the children are grown up and gone their different ways. The play is thus structured in such a way to show the pleasures of the past ,the dreams and hopes the characters had and how these aspirations had turned sour. Willy Loman had built his life in such a way that he had finally trapped himself in an impossible situation. Willy Loman ,the protagonist in the play was a travelling salesman in the services of the wagnor company for 34 years. When his old boss died ,his son Howard took over the administration of the company .Willy’s family consists of three other members ,his wife Linda, Biff,the elder son and Happy, the younger son. Willy unexpectedly returned on the same day he had left for New England territory on a business tour. Linda felt that her husband is thoroughly  exhausted both physically and mentally and he has almost reached the breaking point. Willy, who is 63, has driven the car off the road twice or three times and when he reached home he was found to be panic stricken ,desolate and shattered. Willy liked his eldest son Biff,who was wellknown as a football champion. Though he is 34 , it is unfortunate that he could not settle in life. Inspite of the fact that three colleges offered him scholarship in recognition of his proficiency in football, he did not join any college . Happy, the women chaser also could not settle in life. For the next two days, immediately after his unexpected return, Willy’s mind was rather disturbed with thoughts of today’s realities inter mingled with yesterday’s half forgotten episodes. He felt that it was mistake on his part not to have followed his elder brother Ben ,who dared his way into the diamond minds of Africa and amassed fabulous wealth . Willy’s guilty consciousness pricked him at the flash back scene of Boston hotel room, when his son Biff makes a surprise visit and finds his father having an affair with a strange lady .After this episode, Biff seemed to hold a grudge against his father and could never again bring himself to trust Willy. As suggested by Linda, Willy visits Howard, the young Boss and request for a change of job in the New York City office as he is physically and mentally incapacitated as a travelling sales man. When the request was unceremoniously turned down by Howard and Willy dismissed from service he protest â€Å"You ca nnot eat orange and throw the peel away; man is not a piece of fruit†. Willy is very much frustrated and disillusioned at the behavior of capitalists who lacked the human milk of kindness, sympathy and gratitude. Biff’s attempt to raise a loan from Bill Oliver, the proprietor of sports goods company also failed. Oliver, who once liked Biff immensely, now refused to recognise him now because Biff has stolen a fountain pen, Charley ,Willy’s neighbour extended a helping hand in those days of adversity. He ,not only advanced a loan to him but also offered him a job to him. But Willy refused to accept it with a false sense of dignity. The two sons invited the father for a dinner party at a prominent restaurant in the city. But Happy picked up two call girls and left the place along with Biff,  leaving Willy alone. Willy felt humiliated and this experience was shocking and unbearable when Biff and Happy returned home, Linda ordered them out of the house by the next morning. She was planning to commit suicide on a particular night .Willy was left alone while all others went upstairs. He has insured his life for 20,000 dollars. Once he dies, the family will be entitled to receive the amount from the insurance company. So Willy got into his car and drove madly through darkness, only to kill himself. His funeral was attended only by Linda, the two sons, charley and his son Bernard. Linda could not stand the strain of separation from her beloved husband; but still she stooped down and dropped flowers on the grave of Willy. DEATH OF A SALESMAN AS A TRAGEDY: According to the traditional views based on Aristotelian cannons, the tragic hero was to be a person of high rank and status. So that his down fall could produce an inevitable emotional effect on the audience. In ancient Greek tragedies, fate or destiny is mainly responsible for the downfall of human beings. But Shakespeare and Marlow attributed human misfortune mainly to the personal draw backs of the tragic heroes themselves and hardly to the hidden forces which we describe as fate or destiny. Miller generally departs from both these concepts of tragedy as in the tragic hero in the Death of a sales man belongs to the middle class. He does not hold the view that tragic effect can be produced only by the downfall of a highly placed individual in society. It matters not at all whether hero falls from a great height or small one, whether he highly conscious or dimly aware of what is happening ,if the intensity is their ‘America grows like a giant in unimaginable proportions ‘. Willy symbolically stands for all the low men in American business community not just salesmen -who in a way sell themselves. Willy sells himself and in the process wears himself out and he is finally discarded when he is no longer useful. Willy begins as a salesman 36 years ago, opens up unheard of territories to their trade mark, but in his old age they take his salary away. It is pity that once Willy’s energy is exhausted by the work that  society has assigned to him, he is thrown aside and dismissed by the son of his old boss. Willy protests, â€Å"you cannot eat the orange and throw them peel â€Å". Man is not a piece of fruit no doubt ,Willy loman is a superannuated employee, but he is rejected and ill treated by his employer at the end of his career. Even a change of job with less travelling was denied to him. But still it may not be fully correct to say that Willy is wholly a victim of the prevailing social system. His own responsibility of his tragedy is by no means insignificant or negligible. In the first place he failed to realize his own limitations and short comings Willy has the conviction that success depends on personality, contacts and good cloths and that these will bring everything one wants in life. Obviously Willy is a prey to that magical book of Dale carnegie’s ‘How to win friends and influence people ‘ we know that mistake is that Willy had chosen a wrong profession for himself under the impression that the selling profession is the best in the world. Secondly the sense of guilt which he carries with him due to his past infidelity to his wife has also serious repercussions in his mental stability .His affair with the woman in the hotel when he was visited by Biff hangs on his conscience. Biff’s discovery of Willy’s infidelity marks the crucial turning point in the relationship between the father and the son .There after Biff no longer believes Willy . Another point to be noted is Willy’s incurable optimism .He has had higher expectation about the future of his elder son Biff who looks so charming as the Adonise in Greek mythology and who has earned high reputation as a good football champion. Biff has become disillusioned .For Biff ,life came to be an end with his match. He could neither make a mark in business nor could he go back to school to finish his course. Ironically Bernard who never represented University of Virginia, Bernard who pleaded to carry Biff’s helmet or shoulder guards , prospered. Bernard wins glory by pleading before the supreme court ,but he does this without any pushing from his father. According to Willy, they ought to be success at all; for both Charley and Bernard were not well liked. These tragic experiences shatter Willy’s conception of American dreams. No human or super natural agency interfered his life .The sense of frustration and psychological neurosis upsets his  mental equi librium and shatters him to pieces. CHARACTER LIST WILLY LOMAN: An insecure, self-deluded traveling salesman. Willy believes wholeheartedly in the American Dream of easy success and wealth, but he never achieves it. Nor do his sons fulfill his hope that they will succeed where he has failed. When Willy’s illusions begin to fail under the pressing realities of his life, his mental health begins to unravel. The overwhelming tensions caused by this disparity, as well as those caused by the societal imperatives that drive Willy, form the essential conflict of Death of a Salesman. BIFF LOMAN: Willy’s thirty-four-year-old elder son. Biff led a charmed life in high school as a football star with scholarship prospects, good male friends, and fawning female admirers. He failed math, however, and did not have enough credits to graduate. Since then, his kleptomania has gotten him fired from every job that he has held. Biff represents Willy’s vulnerable, poetic, tragic side. He cannot ignore his instincts, which tell him to abandon Willy’s paralyzing dreams and move out West to work with his hands. He ultimately fails to reconcile his life with Willy’s expectations of him. LINDA LOMAN: Willy’s loyal, loving wife. Linda suffers through Willy’s grandiose dreams and self-delusions. Occasionally, she seems to be taken in by Willy’s self-deluded hopes for future glory and success, but at other times, she seems far more realistic and less fragile than her husband. She has nurtured the family through all of Willy’s misguided attempts at success, and her emotional strength and perseverance support Willy until his collapse. HAPPY LOMAN: Willy’s thirty-two-year-old younger son. Happy has lived in Biffs shadow all of his life, but he compensates by nurturing his relentless sex drive and professional ambition. Happy represents Willy’s sense of self-importance, ambition, and blind servitude to societal expectations. Although he works as an assistant to an assistant buyer in a department  store, Happy presents himself as supremely important. Additionally, he practices bad business ethics and sleeps with the girlfriends of his superiors. CHARLEY- Willy’s next – door neighbor. Charley owns a successful business and his son, Bernard, is a wealthy, important lawyer. Willy is jealous of Charley’s success. Charley gives Willy money to pay his bills, and Willy reveals at one point, choking back tears, that Charley is his only friend. BERNARD – Bernard is Charley’s son and an important, successful lawyer. Although Willy used to mock Bernard for studying hard, Bernard always loved Willy’s sons dearly and regarded Biff as a hero. Bernard’s success is difficult for Willy to accept because his own sons’ lives do not measure up. BEN – Willy’s wealthy older brother. Ben has recently died and appears only in Willy’s â€Å"daydreams.† Willy regards Ben as a symbol of the success that he so desperately craves for himself and his sons. THE WOMAN – Willy’s mistress when Happy and Biff were in high school. The Woman’s attention and admiration boost Willy’s fragile ego. When Biff catches Willy in his hotel room with The Woman, he loses faith in his father, and his dream of passing math and going to college dies. HOWARD WAGNER – Willy’s boss. Howard inherited the company from his father, whom Willy regarded as â€Å"a masterful man† and â€Å"a prince.† Though much younger than Willy, Howard treats Willy with condescension and eventually fires him, despite Willy’s wounded assertions that he named Howard at his birth. STANLEY – A waiter at Frank’s Chop House. Stanley and Happy seem to be friends, or at least acquaintances, and they banter about and ogle Miss Forsythe together before Biff and Willy arrive at the restaurant. MISS FORSYTHE AND LETTA – Two young women whom Happy and Biff meet at Frank’s Chop House. It seems likely that Miss Forsythe and Letta are prostitutes, judging from Happy’s repeated comments about their moral character and the  fact that they are â€Å"on call.† JENNY – Charley’s secretary THEMES, MOTIFS & SYMBOLS THEMES Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work. THE AMERICAN DREAM Willy believes wholeheartedly in what he considers the promise of the American Dream- that a â€Å"well liked† and â€Å"personally attractive† man in business will indubitably and deservedly acquire the material comforts offered by modern American life. Oddly, his fixation with the superficial qualities of attractiveness and likeability is at odds with a more gritty, more rewarding understanding of the American Dream that identifies hard work without complaint as the key to success. Willy’s interpretation of likeability is superficial-he childishly dislikes Bernard because he considers Bernard a nerd. Willy’s blind faith in his stunted version of the American Dream leads to his rapid psychological decline when he is unable to accept the disparity between the Dream and his own life. ABANDONMENT Willy’s life charts a course from one abandonment to the next, leaving him in greater despair each time. Willy’s father leaves him and Ben when Willy is very young, leaving Willy neither a tangible (money) nor an intangible (history) legacy. Ben eventually departs for Alaska, leaving Willy to lose himself in a warped vision of the American Dream. Likely a result of these early experiences, Willy develops a fear of abandonment, which makes him want his family to conform to the American Dream. His efforts to raise perfect sons, however, reflect his inability to understand reality. The  young Biff, whom Willy considers the embodiment of promise, drops Willy and Willy’s zealous ambitions for him when he finds out about Willy’s adultery. Biff’s ongoing inability to succeed in business furthers his estrangement from Willy. When, at Frank’s Chop House, Willy finally believes that Biff is on the cups of greatness, Biff shatters Willy’s illus ions and, along with Happy, abandons the deluded, babbling Willy in the washroom. BETRAYAL Willy’s primary obsession throughout the play is what he considers to be Biff’s betrayal of his ambitions for him. Willy believes that he has every right to expect Biff to fulfill the promise inherent in him. When Biff walks out on Willy’s ambitions for him, Willy takes this rejection as a personal affront (he associates it with â€Å"insult† and â€Å"spite†). Willy, after all, is a salesman, and Biff’s ego-crushing rebuff ultimately reflects Willy’s inability to sell him on the American Dream-the product in which Willy himself believes most faithfully. Willy assumes that Biff’s betrayal stems from Biff’s discovery of Willy’s affair with The Woman-a betrayal of Linda’s love. Whereas Willy feels that Biff has betrayed him, Biff feels that Willy, a â€Å"phony little fake,† has betrayed him with his unending stream of ego-stroking lies. MOTIFS Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes. MYTHIC FIGURES Willy’s tendency to mythologize people contributes to his deluded understanding of the world. He speaks of Dave Singleman as a legend and imagines that his death must have been beautifully noble. Willy compares Biff and Happy to the mythic Greek figures Adonis and Hercules because he believes that his sons are pinnacles of â€Å"personal attractiveness† and power through â€Å"well liked†-ness; to him, they seem the very incarnation of the  American Dream. Willy’s mythologizing proves quite nearsighted, however. Willy fails to realize the hopelessness of Singleman’s lonely, on-the-job, on-the-road death. Trying to achieve what he considers to be Singleman’s heroic status, Willy commits himself to a pathetic death and meaningless legacy (even if Willy’s life insurance policy ends up paying off, Biff wants nothing to do with Willy’s ambition for him). THE AMERICAN WEST, ALASKA, AND THE AFRICAN JUNGLE These regions represent the potential of instinct to Biff and Willy. Willy’s father found success in Alaska and his brother, Ben, became rich in Africa; these exotic locales, especially when compared to Willy’s banal Brooklyn neighborhood, crystallize how Willy’s obsession with the commercial world of the city has trapped him in an unpleasant reality. Whereas Alaska and the African jungle symbolize Willy’s failure, the American West, on the other hand, symbolizes Biff’s potential. Biff realizes that he has been content only when working on farms, out in the open. His westward escape from both Willy’s delusions and the commercial world of the eastern United States suggests a nineteenth-century pioneer mentality-Biff, unlike Willy, recognizes the importance of the individual. SYMBOLS Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. SEEDS Seeds represent for Willy the opportunity to prove the worth of his labor, both as a salesman and a father. His desperate, nocturnal attempt to grow vegetables signifies his shame about barely being able to put food on the table and having nothing to leave his children when he passes. Willy feels that he has worked hard but fears that he will not be able to help his  offspring any more than his own abandoning father helped him. The seeds also symbolize Willy’s sense of failure with Biff. Despite the American Dream’s formula for success, which Willy considers infallible, Willy’s efforts to cultivate and nurture Biff went awry. Realizing that his all-American football star has turned into a lazy bum, Willy takes Biff’s failure and lack of ambition as a reflection of his abilities as a father. DIAMONDS To Willy, diamonds represent tangible wealth and, hence, both validation of one’s labor (and life) and the ability to pass material goods on to one’s offspring, two things that Willy desperately craves. Correlatively, diamonds, the discovery of which made Ben a fortune, symbolize Willy’s failure as a salesman. Despite Willy’s belief in the American Dream, a belief unwavering to the extent that he passed up the opportunity to go with Ben to Alaska, the Dream’s promise of financial security has eluded Willy. At the end of the play, Ben encourages Willy to enter the â€Å"jungle† finally and retrieve this elusive diamond-that is, to kill himself for insurance money in order to make his life meaningful. LINDA’S AND THE WOMAN’S STOCKINGS Willy’s strange obsession with the condition of Linda’s stockings foreshadows his later flashback to Biff’s discovery of him and The Woman in their Boston hotel room. The teenage Biff accuses Willy of giving away Linda’s stockings to The Woman. Stockings assume a metaphorical weight as the symbol of betrayal and sexual infidelity. New stockings are important for both Willy’s pride in being financially successful and thus able to provide for his family and for Willy’s ability to ease his guilt about, and suppress the memory of, his betrayal of Linda and Biff. THE RUBBER HOSE The rubber hose is a stage prop that reminds the audience of Willy’s desperate attempts at suicide. He has apparently attempted to kill himself  by inhaling gas, which is, ironically, the very substance essential to one of the most basic elements with which he must equip his home for his family’s health and comfort-heat. Literal death by inhaling gas parallels the metaphorical death that Willy feels in his struggle to afford such a basic necessity. QUESTIONS The play ‘Death of a Salesman’ revolves mainly around a conflict between ? What are the reasons for Willy’s failure as a business man? American dream in the play ‘Death of a salesman’. What is the central theme of the play ‘Death of a salesman’. The father son conflict in the play ‘Death of a salesman’. The hotel scene in the play ‘Death of a salesman’. The role of mother Linda Loman in the play ‘Death of a salesman’. Why did Biff Loman leave the school? The significance of the title’Death of a salesman’. Why did Willy commit suicide? The flash back scene in the play ‘Death of a salesman’. Miller’s play as a critique of the American way of life.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Laughter Is the Best Medicine Period A

Laughter is the Best Medicine Vikrant Badhwar Period A. There are so many quotes about laughing like, â€Å"Laughter is an instant vacation†, â€Å"Laughter is the shortest distance between two people† and we are all familiar with one of the most well known quotes â€Å"Laughter is the best medicine. † Yes, you guessed it right, my speech topic is â€Å"Laughter is the best medicine. † Laughter is contagious and it not only improves physical, mental and emotional health but also makes people happier and brings them closer. Laughter helps and overcomes many social barriers.One cannot go through life being miserable all the time and we need to find humor in anything or everything we can. Laughter is free medicine and very easy to use at any place and anytime Laughter is one of the best natural pain killers in the world. There are a lot of health benefits from laughing. What can be a better way to relieve stress and get rid of pain than laughter? Laughing can boost your immune system. When you laugh, it reduces the stress hormones known as cortisol and increases the immune cells that can fight infections and prevent many diseases.Laughter increases a hormone known as endorphins that acts as a pain killer. It gives the body a good feeling and can temporarily relieve pain. Laughter increases the blood flow in our bodies which can prevent the risk of having a heart attack. Did you know that 15 minutes of laughter can be just as good as 2 hours of sleep; one good belly laugh can burn 3 and ? calories, laughing for 15 seconds adds two days to your life span. The Chinese have it right, they laugh more than any other culture in the world! Laughter makes you feel good about yourself and helps you stay emotionally healthy.When you laugh, you get a feeling in your body that makes you feel good. When you laugh, there is no way you will feel angry, sad or even mad, therefore it relieves all your bad emotions. Laughter brings a lot of joy and energy that allows you to have a positive outlook towards life even when you are feeling down. Researchers believe that there is a strong link between laughter and emotional health. Laughter reduces stress and helps you relax. Laughter also helps you stay focused and helps you look at difficult situations more clearly.Laughing by yourself is a great dose of medicine but laughing with others is even better. Shared laughter is considered to be great way of keeping relationships healthy. When you are laughing with others, it helps strengthen the bond between friends, and even helps dissolve a disagreement or conflict that otherwise maybe be harmful to your mental and emotional health. Laughing together can make life fun and enjoyable. Did you know that there are actually Laughter Yoga groups where the Yoga leader actually teaches you how to laugh!There is one group called the â€Å"Laughter Brigade† in India where you can catch a group of people laughing silly early in the morning whi le doing their routine exercises! As you can see, laughter is not only a free medicine but it can be available anywhere, anytime and in any situation. Laughter’s benefits to our physical, mental, and emotional well being are enormous. Laughing together strengthens the bond, brings people closer and overcome many social barriers. So, I say keep on laughing and add more joy, happiness and love to your daily lives.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Compare Joy’s present job Essay

1. Compare Joy’s present job to what you think her previous job as a salesperson might have been. How are they similar? How are they different? Joy’s position as regional sales director is similar to her previous job as salesperson in that both are people-oriented. In the job as salesperson, she would have met with clients, traveled, and dealt with many people face-to-face. As a salesperson, however, she was in control of her own time. Her present job involves working through other people, and she must cope with many problems. The job is fragmented and involves communicating and negotiating. Thus, the managerial position is much broader in scope and contains many more day-to-day problems and interruptions. 2.What managerial skills are depicted in the case? Which skill is most important for Joy to possess? Why? Human and conceptual skills are most important in Joy’s present job–especially human skills. She works with subordinates, peers, and superiors–all requiring good human skills. 3. Why do you feel Joy may be disenchanted with her present job? The disenchantment may result from unrealistic expectations about the sales director’s job. Many people who have excellent technical skills and succeed at a technical job expect to continue performing the same tasks when they become managers. But as one moves up the management hierarchy, the various management functions become more important, and they require human and conceptual rather than technical skills. People who succeed as managers enjoy the opportunity to perform these functions and display these skills. For Joy, the greatest frustration seems to be her inability to control her own time and the need to work through other people, many of whom may disagree with what she is trying to accomplish. Thus, the key management issues become persistence and frequent negotiations.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Determining Activation Energy

Activation energy of a reaction Mengyuan Wu IB Chem HL Richard Forster March 20, 2013 Introduction: In this experiment, a reduction of peroxodisulphate (VI) ions by iodine ions is investigated. Solution of 10cm3 of K2S2O8, potassium peroxodisulphate, represented as ‘Solution A’. Mixture of 5cm3 of KI (Potassium iodide solution), and 5 cm3 of Na2S2O3 (sodium thiosulphate solution), and 2. 5cm3 of starch solution is considered as ‘Solution B’.Solution A and B are mixed together under different temperatures to show a â€Å"clock† reaction. Observation: Table 1: Raw Quantitative Data of Temperature and Time from the Experiment Fixed / Ideal Temperature ( °C)| Temperature of Solution A ( °C ±0. 5 °C)| Temperature of Solution B ( °C ±0. 5 °C)| Time Taken| Time Proceeded (seconds ±1 seconds)| 30| 31. 0| 31. 0| 3:10:34| 191| 35| 36. 0| 33. 5| 2:11:83| 132| 40| 40. 0| 38. 0| 1:37:24| 97| 45| 46. 0| 45. 5| 1:12:83| 73| 50| 51. 0| 51. 0| 0:52:40| 53| Qualitative:Before: Solution A: clear colorless solutions; Solution B: clear colorless solution During: Both solution A and B reached (or close to) a fixed temperature and mixed together form a clear colorless solution reaction time: one or few section of the solution turned clear light purple opaque purple, then the section expand to the entire solution speedily within a second the purple opaque solution gradually turn to a darker purple color After: Dark purple-black colored opaque solution Processing and Presenting Data:Table 2: Uncertainty of the Apparatus Used in the Experiment Equipment| Uncertainty| Explanation| Stopwatch| Seconds ±1 second| The actual uncertainty of the stopwatch is millisecond, shown in the column ‘Time Taken’ in Table 1. However, there are human reaction uncertainties when receiving the change in color in the actual experiment, so that particular uncertainty is presented by  ±1 second| 50cm3 Burette for K2S2O8, KI, and Na2S2O3| cm3 ±0. 02cm30. 02% for each solution| Initial Reading ( ±0. 1cm3) + Final reading ( ±0. 1cm3) = volume used ( ±0. cm3) for every solution measured in mixture A or B| 10mL Measuring Cylinder for starch solution| mL ±0. 2mL| | Thermometer|  °C ±1. 0 °C| Mixture A and B both have separate (but relatively close) temperature with uncertainty of  ±0. 5 °C each, after the average of the two the uncertainty doubles| Table 3: Processed date for temperature and time Average Temperature of the reaction ( °C ±1. 0 °C)| Proceed Temperature (K ±1. 0K)| Time Proceeded (seconds ±1 seconds)| 31. 0| 304. 0| 191| 35. 0| 308. 0| 132| 39. 0| 312. 0| 97| 46. 0| 319. 0| 73| 51. 0| 324. 0| 53|Table 4: Processed data for Graphing ln 1t (3 sig fig)| 1T (K)(4 sig fig)| -5. 25| 0. 003289| -4. 88| 0. 003246| -4. 57| 0. 003205| -4. 29| 0. 003134| -3. 97| 0. 003086| ln 1t=lnK (Proportional) t= Time T= Temperature (in K) Graph1: Calculation: Values: Table 4: Calculation to Process Temperat ure: | | Calculation 1: Average Temperature ( °C ±1. 0 °C)| Calculation 2: Temperature in K (K ±1. 0K)| | Formula| Temp. of A+Temp. of B2| Temp. in  °C+273| Fixed / Ideal Temperature ( °C)| 30| 31. 0+31. 02=31. 0| 31. 0+273=304. 0| | 35| 36. 0+33. 52=34. 75? 35. 0| 35. +273=308. 0| | 40| 40. 0+38. 02=39. 0| 39. 0+273=312. 0| | 45| 46. 0+45. 52=45. 75? 46. 0| 46. 0+273=319. 0| | 50| 51. 0+51. 02=51. 0| 51. 0+273=324. 0| Table 5: Calculation for Graphing Data | Calculation 3:ln 1t| Calculation 4:1T(K)| Fixed / Ideal Temperature ( °C)| 30| ln1191? -5. 25| 1304? 0. 003289| | 35| ln1132? -4. 88| 1308? 0. 003246| | 40| ln197? -4. 57| 1312? 0. 003205| | 45| ln173? -4. 29| 1319? 0. 003134| | 50| ln153? -3. 97| 1324? 0. 003086| Calculation 5 (Activation Energy): lnk= -EaR ? 1T+lnA y = m(slope) x + c R=8. 314 Jmol-1K-1(Diploma)Data from Graph 1: y = -6045. 3x + 14. 705 -6045. 3 = -EaR Ea=8. 314 ? 6045. 3 =50260. 6242 J =50. 2606242 KJ Random Errors: Calculation 6: (%Random Error for Average Temperature of the Reaction) Average temperature of the reaction K  ± 1. 0 K (Refer to Table 2) % Error=1. 0304. 0+1. 0308. 0+1. 0312. 0+1. 0319. 0+1. 0324. 0? 100 ? 1. 596% Calculation 7: (%Random Error for Time) Time Taken Seconds  ± 1 Second (estimated human reaction time) (Refer to Table 2) % Error=1191+1132+197+173+153? 100? 5. 569% Calculation 8: (% Random Error for Solutions) Random Error for K2S2O8+KI+ Na2S2O3+Starch 0. 02%? 3+0. 22. 5? 100 ? 8. 06% Calculation 8: (Total % Random Error) % Error=1. 596%+5. 569%+8. 06% =15. 225%=20% (one sig. fig. ) Final Answer: Calculation 9: (Final Answer) 50. 2606242 KJ  ±20% 50. 2606242 KJ =50. 3 KJ (3 sig. fig. >smallest sig. fig. in calculation) 50. 2606242 KJ? 0. 2? 10. 052 KJ=10KJ (one sig. fig. ) Experimental Result: 50. 3 KJ  ±10KJ 50. 3 KJ  ±20% Work Cited: Diploma Programme Chemistry Data Booklet. 2nd ed. Cardiff: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2008. 6. Print.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Fashion in France during Renaissance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fashion in France during Renaissance - Essay Example The essay "Fashion in France during Renaissance" talks about fashion in the period of renaissance. By the end of the 15th Century, men's Renaissance fashion imposed a short and ornamental mantle, a broad-brimmed hat covered with feathers, and trunk hose, the ample dimensions of which earned for them the name of trousses. Women wore the bodies of their dresses closely fitting to the figure, embroidered, trimmed with lace, and covered with gilt ornaments; the sleeves were very large and open, and for the most part they still adhered to the heavy and ungraceful head-dress of Queen Anne of Brittany.† Females’ dresses became chic and shorter than ever, they wore very colorful garments during the time of renaissance. The female garments were loose and looked chic on the contrary men’s dress was made to be tightly fit and there was a lot of difference in men’s and women’s wear during the time of renaissance. â€Å"During the 16th Century, ladies wore the s kirts of their dresses, which were tight at the waist and open in front, very wide, displaying the lower part of a very rich under petticoat, which reached to the ground, completely concealing the feet. This, like the sleeves with puffs, which fell in circles to the wrists, was altogether a typical Italian Renaissance fashion. Frequently the hair was turned over in rolls, and adorned with precious stones, and was surmounted by a small cap, coquettishly placed either on one side or on the top of the head, and ornamented with gold chains, jewels, and feathers.